Some great advice and links from Backyard Gardener. I'd like to add that you will need to know your plant hardiness zone as well. You don't say where you live, so if you aren't in the US I have links for several other countries to determine your plant hardiness zone.
I too read books to learn about gardening and when plants bloom. One that had the type of charts you are looking for was a book by Martha Stewart. It was Martha Stewart Gardening, Month by Month. I got it from the library and photocopied the pages I wanted to keep for when plants bloom. If I remember it also listed plants by color of bloom. It was one of her earlier books and there's a picture of her on the cover when she was younger.
When weeding, the best way to make sure you are removing a weed and not a valuable plant is to pull on it. If it comes out of the ground easily, it is a valuable plant.