I think it would be a good idea to decide what you want to grow and then go from there.* If I give you info on growing cucumbers and you don't eat them, it isn't going to help you out.* I'm going to give you some sites with growing guides for different veggies.* Once you've decided what you want to grow you can look up the spacing of the veggies and if they are warm or cool season crops.* You don't want to plant tomatoes outside now if you live in Michigan.* On the other hand, if you live in Southern Calif and plant cabbage now, it will probably bolt and not produce well, if at all.
A great place to get info on what to plant when would be your local extension service.* It's free and some states have excellent sites.* You can find your state here.
Here's sites with loads of info on growing many different veggies.* Btw, they are extension service sites from different states.
The last one has some great info on growing corn, which needs to spaced properly so the ears can be pollinated by the wind.* You'll have to scroll down a bit for that info, but lots of helpful stuff.
It also has good info on planning your veggie garden.
I know that's lots of reading, but sometimes that's necessary when you're just starting and have a good sized garden.
Hope that helps,
When weeding, the best way to make sure you are removing a weed and not a valuable plant is to pull on it. If it comes out of the ground easily, it is a valuable plant.