Sorry to read about the munching of your garden.* :(* Here's a veggie planting calendar for Texas that should be helpful.* The guidelines are for first and last frost date, so I'm including a site where you can estimate your first and last frost dates.
When weeding, the best way to make sure you are removing a weed and not a valuable plant is to pull on it. If it comes out of the ground easily, it is a valuable plant.