Connor, I'm not a guy, but I'll give it a go. It would be most helpful to know where these plants are growing. You are in the US? If so, where?
1. Tulips (don't know which ones as there are thousands) and pu$$y willow aka Salix.
2. Looks like one of the variegated Euonymous. Can't quite tell if yours has a yellow or white coloring. Take a look at these.
Euonymus fortunei 'Emerald 'n Gold'
Euonymus fortunei 'Emerald Gaiety'
Euonymus fortunei 'Moonshadow'
3. Picture too far away so I can't really tell. Hostas to the right and another Euonymus to the left. Looks like a white variegated one.
4. Virginia bluebells aka Mertensia virginica a US native spring ephemeral.
5. Not sure of this one. My first impression would be Silene virginica aka fire pink, a US native.
Could also be Chionodoxa aka Glory of the Snow, a spring bulb, but the flower center doesn't look right.
6. Violets. Be real careful with these as they can seed all over the place in a very few short years and become a noxious weed in lawns and flower beds. I've been cursed with them!
7. Clematis. There are thousands of these wonderful vines. They come in large flowered types, bell types (this one) and smaller flowered ones. They each have different pruning requirements but it's not that difficult to figure out with the help of this site.
8. I'm just not that good with conifers. Please use the sites I gave you to tell if it's spruce or something else. It appears to be grafted as a standard.
9. Another Euonymous that is either grafted as a standard or a shrub variety limbed up to look that way.
10. Pelargonium aka zonal geranium. Many folks just call them geraniums, but there are true hardy geraniums. These can't stay outside in winter north of zone 9 or 10. It's probably one of the angel or pansy faced ones. Looks like there's a tag there. Is this a test? Click on those names here for more info and pics.
11. Gerbera daisy aka Gerber daisy, a tender perennial that won't survive north of zone 10. Demanding and needs full sun, Doesn't winter over in the house very well and if you try it, may never bloom again. Treat as an annual.
Growing behind that is a sedum, a sun loving succulent.
12. Fern, but I'm not a botanist so I can't tell you which one. Is this growing in a pot? If so, could be Boston fern.
I'd still like to know where these plants are growing.
When weeding, the best way to make sure you are removing a weed and not a valuable plant is to pull on it. If it comes out of the ground easily, it is a valuable plant.