Because of the complexity of their pedigrees, roses other than the species cannot be grown true to variety from seeds. They are mainly propagated by budding, although they can be rooted from cuttings. They are, however, not so vigorous as those that are budded. Growing from Cuttings Hardwood cuttings, about 1 ft. long and 1/4 in. in diameter, are taken in the fall by making a cut horizontally below a lower bud at the top with a cut sloping downwards from above a bud. The lower leaves are removed and the eyes eliminated with a wedge-shaped cut, when they are likely to be below the ground level
Place them 6 in. apart, in 2 in. of sand in a narrow wedge-shaped trench, which is filled with soil and gently trodden in, keeping them vertical. They should then be well watered. Rooting can be encouraged by wetting their lower ends and dipping them in hormone-rooting powder before planting.
In the fall of the following year the rooted cuttings can be transplanted to their permanent quarters.
Budding is the process of uniting the rose cell tissue to that of a related plant, which has well-developed roots. The latter is called a rootstock.
The budding knife is a razor-sharp, pointed knife, with a handle with a thin, wedge-shaped end for lifting the bark.
The seedling rootstocks are planted about 8 in. apart, preferably in a straight line in a spare plot in early spring. The neck, i.e. the part between the first green shoot and the root fork, should be about 1 in. above the ground. For convenience when budding, they should be put in sloping towards the spot where the budder will ultimately be working.
The shoot selected to provide buds should be one on which the blooms have just faded. As it should be fresh when the buds are taken, it should be left on the bush until the rootstock has been prepared.
In late summer, on a day following rain or copious overnight watering, the soil is scraped away from the neck of the rootstock and it is washed clean with water. Next the budder to assist him in his work, should press the rootstock down with his knee to give him good access to the neck.
About 1 in. above the root fork, a cross-cut, about 1/3 in. wide is made with the budding knife. Then from a point 3/4 in. below it, a lengthwise cut is made to form a T-shaped incision with it. At the finish of making this cut, the bark is carefully lifted slightly with a twisting movement of the blade. The bark along the whole length of the slit is raised, using the wedge-shaped end of the handle (see figure 13).
To take a bud the selected shoot is cut, the thorns removed and the leaves trimmed back.
Budding Standards Except that their buds are joined to the rootstock at the top of a vertical stem, the budding procedure is the same as with a bush except that the buds are inserted into side shoots when they have grown about 18 in. As the ties do not rot, they must be cut after four weeks. The newly-budded roses are ready for planting out in their permanent quarters in the following October, or thereafter in suitable weather conditions.
Budding a rose: A T-shaped incision is made in the bark and the bark is raised.
Cutting out the bud.
15: The bud is gently torn away, taking a thin slip of bark with it.
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