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Umbellularia californica
( California Laurel )

Umbellularia californica is a spreading evergreen tree which can reach 75 feet tall, 100 feet wide in the wild. Foliage is aromatic and leathery dark green, some find the aroma unpleasant, even causing headache, while others use the leaves as a substitute for Sweet Bay in cooking. Creamy yellow flowers appear in late spring, followed by an inedible purple olive-like fruit. It has a tendency to sucker and it is difficult to grow other plants underneath it, also sheds leaves and litter, so best not used by paved areas, however it is useful as a large hedge or screen. Can be subject to sooty mold from aphids or scale infestation. Native to California, Oregon.


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Characteristics
Cultivar:n/a  
Family:Lauraceae  
Size:Height: 60 ft. to 80 ft.
Width: 70 ft. to 100 ft.  
Plant Category:trees,  
Plant Characteristics:decorative berries or fruit, round, spreading,  
Foliage Characteristics:fragrant, evergreen,  
Foliage Color:dark green,  
Flower Characteristics:fragrant,  
Flower Color:yellows,  
Tolerances:deer, drought, rabbits, seashore, slope, wind,  
Requirements
Bloomtime Range:Late Spring to Late Spring  
USDA Hardiness Zone:7 to 10  
AHS Heat Zone:Not defined for this plant  
Light Range:Sun to Full Sun  
pH Range:5.5 to 7.5  
Soil Range:Some Sand to Some Clay  
Water Range:Dry to Moist  

Plant Care



Fertilizing
How-to : Fertilization for Young Plants

Young plants need extra phosphorus to encourage good root development. Look for a fertilizer that has phosphorus, P, in it(the second number on the bag.) Apply recommended amount for plant per label directions in the soil at time of planting or at least during the first growing season.

Light
Conditions : Full Sun

Full Sun is defined as exposure to more than 6 hours of continuous, direct sun per day.

Watering
Conditions : Regular Moisture for Outdoor Plants

Water when normal rainfall does not provide the preferred 1 inch of moisture most plants prefer. Average water is needed during the growing season, but take care not to overwater. The first two years after a plant is installed, regular watering is important. The first year is critical. It is better to water once a week and water deeply, than to water frequently for a few minutes.

Planting
How-to : Planting a Tree

Dig out an area for the tree that is about 3 or 4 times the diameter of the container or rootball and the same depth as the container or rootball. Use a pitchfork or shovel to scarify the sides of the hole.

If container-grown, lay the tree on its side and remove the container. Loosen the roots around the edges without breaking up the root ball too much. Position tree in center of hole so that the best side faces forward. You are ready to begin filling in with soil.

If planting a balled and burlaped tree, position it in hole so that the best side faces forward. Untie or remove nails from burlap at top of ball and pull burlap back, so it does not stick out of hole when soil is replaced. Synthetic burlap should be removed as it will not decompose like natural burlap. Larger trees often come in wire baskets. Plant as you would a b&b plant, but cut as much of the wire away as possible without actually removing the basket. Chances are, you would do more damage to the rootball by removing the basket. Simply cut away wires to leave several large openings for roots.

Fill both holes with soil the same way. Never amend with less than half original soil. Recent studies show that if your soil is loose enough, you are better off adding little or no soil amendments.

Create a water ring around the outer edge of the hole. Not only will this conseve water, but will direct moisture to perimeter roots, encouraging outer growth. Once tree is established, water ring may be leveled. Studies show that mulched trees grow faster than those unmulched, so add a 3"" layer of pinestraw, compost, or pulverized bark over backfilled area. Remove any damaged limbs.

How-to : Making a Hedge

Hedges can be trained to be informal with only occasional shaping or to have a more formal shape with judicious pruning.

Shear off the tops 2 to 6 inches several times during the first two seasons. Shearing of the tops and sides will promote branching. A common mistake people make is to cut the sides at a 90 degree angle. In this case the top growth shades the bottom resulting in a leggy open canopy. It is best to cut the sides at an angle so that they flare out at the bottom. This will ensure healthy and compact growth all the way down to the bottom of the shrub.

Problems
Pest : Aphids

Aphids are small, soft-bodied, slow-moving insects that suck fluids from plants. Aphids come in many colors, ranging from green to brown to black, and they may have wings. They attack a wide range of plant species causing stunting, deformed leaves and buds. They can transmit harmful plant viruses with their piercing/sucking mouthparts. Aphids, generally, are merely a nuisance, since it takes many of them to cause serious plant damage. However aphids do produce a sweet substance called honeydew (coveted by ants) which can lead to an unattractive black surface growth called sooty mold.

Aphids can increase quickly in numbers and each female can produce up to 250 live nymphs in the course of a month without mating. Aphids often appear when the environment changes - spring & fall. They're often massed at the tips of branches feeding on succulent tissue. Aphids are attracted to the color yellow and will often hitchhike on yellow clothing.

Prevention and Control: Keep weeds to an absolute minimum, especially around desirable plants. On edibles, wash off infected area of plant. Lady bugs and lacewings will feed on aphids in the garden. There are various products - organic and inorganic - that can be used to control aphids. Seek the recommendation of a professional and follow all label procedures to a tee.

Pest : Scale Insects

Scales are insects, related to mealy bugs, that can be a problem on a wide variety of plants - indoor and outdoor. Young scales crawl until they find a good feeding site. The adult females then lose their legs and remain on a spot protected by its hard shell layer. They appear as bumps, often on the lower sides of leaves. They have piercing mouth parts that suck the sap out of plant tissue. Scales can weaken a plant leading to yellow foliage and leaf drop. They also produce a sweet substance called honeydew (coveted by ants) which can lead to an unattractive black surface fungal growth called sooty mold.

Prevention and Control: Once established they are hard to control. Isolate infested plants away from those that are not infested. Consult your local garden center professional or Cooperative Extension office in your county for a legal recommendation regarding their control. Encourage natural enemies such as parasitic wasps in the garden.

Fungi : Sooty Mold

Sooty mold is a fungus that is found on the surface of leaves. It feeds on honeydew excreted from aphids, mealy bugs, scale, or ants. Though not serious, it is unattractive when it covers/blackens the leaves and stems of the plant. The best way to control sooty mold is to control the insects that make the honeydew. Sooty mold can usually be wiped from leaves with a damp cloth or washed away with a hose-end sprayer.

Miscellaneous
Glossary : Hedge

A hedge is any tree, shrub, perennial, annual or herb that can be clipped and maintained in a formal or informal shape. Hedges can provide privacy and define property lines as well as rooms of a garden.

Glossary : Evergreen

Evergreen refers to plants that hold onto their leaves or needles for more than one growing season, shedding them over time. Some plants such as live oaks are evergreen, but commonly shed the majority of their older leaves around the end of January.

Glossary : U. S. Natives

Native plants require lower maintenance and usually have less pest problems. They are key components in the xeriphytic landscape and backyard wildlife habitat. Select your region and the search will look for all plants in the database that are native to your area.

Glossary : Drought Tolerant

Very few plants, except for those naturally found in desert situations, can tolerate arid soils, but there are plants that seem to be more drought tolerant than others. Plants that are drought tolerant still require moisture, so don't think that they can go for extended period without any water. Drought tolerant plants are often deep rooted, have waxy or thick leaves that conserve water, or leaf structures that close to minimize transpiration. All plants in droughty situations benefit from an occasional deep watering and a 2-3 inch thick layer of mulch. Drought tolerant plants are the backbone of xeriphytic landscaping.

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