|Pinus thunbergiana is an evergreen conifer reaching between 20 to 80 feet in height, with a 20 to 40 feet spread. A pyramidical form, in age it develops spreading, pendulous branches. Needles are paired, 2 1/2 to 4 1/2 inches long, stiff and attractive, glossy, dark green. Very tolerant of salt spray and heat and drought conditions; it has been used for reclamation of sand dunes. Can be made into bonsai. Several cultivars are available. Native to Japan.
Pines are one of the most diverse groups of evergreen conifers, over 90 species are distributed throughout the Northern Hemisphere. Although most are large trees, they can take a low growing shrub form. Pines have been very important commercially, in timber production, as well as a variety of other manufactured products such as turpentine, and rosin. They tend to be more tolerant of varying soil types and urban environments than either Picea or Abies. Pines tend to develop tap roots, so one should not attempt to transplant them from the wild. All species are grown from seed, with highly variable seed stratification requirements. They can be subject to many diseases, such as damping off, root rot, dieback, blister rust, canker, blight, scale, pine needle miner, pine weevil, bark beetles and pinewood nematode. Well situated plants should be relatively trouble free.
They suffer salt damage along highways, and can get tip burn in areas of high sulfur dioxide or ozone.