Andrographis paniculata

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Posted by Ashvini Gautam on July 03, 2002 at 23:18:27:

Fax:91-135-651108 / 650944.
Post: 34 old cannought place
Dehra Dun-248001

Please find below a monograph on Andrographis paniculata cultivation, harvest and uses.

Andrographis paniculata


The climatic requirement for the plant is hot and humid conditions with ample sunshine. With the onset of monsoon , plant grows luxuriantly and starts flowering with the moderation in temperature after end of monsoon.

It can be cultivated on a wide range of soils from loam to lateritic soils with moderate fertility. It can be cultivated on shady wastelands also.

The propagation is through shattered seeds in nature. Vegetative propagation is also possible in certain special cases through layering aseach node is capable of producing enough roots. Seeds are small and remain dormant for 5-6 months . For raising crops in one hectare three beds of 10 x 2 m size should be tilled , pulverized and leveled. Liberal use of organic manure in nursery is advised for raising health seedlings .The seeds 250-300 gram are broadcast on each bed surface. The germination is 70-80 %. Seeds should be covered with very thin layer of soil and compost mixture . Bed should be covered suitably with suitable mulch and irrigated regularly with water fountain till seedlings emerge( 6-7 days).
Immediately after germination mulch is removed to avoid elongation of the seedlings. If possible seedlings should be raised in shade to protect from heat.

In well prepared and laid out beds, transplanting of seedlings is done when they are one month old and plant spacing of 45-60 cm and 30-45 cm respectively in a row.
Beds are to be irrigated immediately after planting. It is advisable to irrigate beds one day earlier to planting to avoid any risk of exosmosis in seedlings which may result in gaps.

Manure and fertilizer:
Andrographis paniculata can be grown on poor to moderate fertle soil but a provision of 80 Kg Nitrogen and 40 Kg P2O5 will increase the herb yield . Nitrogen application can be splitted in two doses which can be applied at an interval of 30-45 days. In addition 3-6 tonnes of well rotten farm yard manure is required for raising nursery.

Maximum herb biomass can be obtained in 90-100 days beyond which leaves start shedding . Crop remains dormant in winter. At the time of flower initiation active principal andrographolide is high in leaves . Since the whole plant contains active principals , entire harvested material is dried in shade and powdered.
A well maintained crop grown during monsoon season yields 3.5 to 4 Tons of dried herb.

Disease and Pests:
The plant is almost free from any insects/pests of significance.

The therapeutic value of this plant is due to enzyme induction mechanism .The whole plant has anti-inflammatory , immunosuppressive and alexipharmic properties and is useful in dysentery, diarrhoea, cholera, fever, diabetes, consumption , influenzaq, coryza, cough, sore throat, tonsillitis, ostiodynia, bronchitis, itches, arthalgia , menstrual and post partum haemotmetra , scrofula, hypertension, piles and gynorrhoea.
Decoction of the plant is blood purifier, used for cure of torbid liver , jaundice, dermatological diseases, dyspepsia , febrifuge and anthelmintic . Tincture of roots is tonic, stimultant and aperient.

The plant is anti-typhoid against Salmonella typhae and antifungal against Helminthosporium sativum. Shoot extract in saline and ether showed antibiotic properties against Micrococcus pyogenes var aureus. Dilute sulphuric acid or acetate buffer ether extract is effective against Escherchia coli.

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Special thanks to Jane and Bob Rosi for providing this information.

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