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Lolium perenne
( Pennfine Perennial Ryegrass )

Widely used clumping grass forms a medium textured, light green turf. A short-lived perennial which cannot survive high or low temperature stresses very well. Best suited for cool, moist regions with mild winters. Poor drought tolerance but will adapt to shade and wet soil conditions. Commonly used to overseed dormant warm season lawns such as Bermuda and Centepede. Establish during the growing season (cooler months).


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Characteristics
Cultivar: Pennfine  
Family: Poaceae  
Size: Height: 0 ft. to 1 ft.
Width: 0 ft. to 0 ft.  
Plant Category: ground covers, perennials,  
Plant Characteristics:  
Foliage Characteristics: evergreen,  
Foliage Color: dark green,  
Flower Characteristics:  
Flower Color:  
Tolerances: deer, pollution, rabbits, seashore, slope, wind,  
Requirements
Bloomtime Range: not applicable  
USDA Hardiness Zone: 3 to 7  
AHS Heat Zone: Not defined for this plant  
Light Range: Dappled to Full Sun  
pH Range: 5 to 8  
Soil Range: Mostly Sand to Some Clay  
Water Range: Normal to Moist  

Plant Care



Fertilizing
Tools : Spreaders

Spreaders are necessary for the accurate and even distribution of fertilizers, grass seed, and other materials. Push spreaders (cyclone or drop) have a flow gadge that is set per instructions on product label to ensure proper rate of distribution.

Light
Conditions : Full to Partial Sun

Full sunlight is needed for many plants to assume their full potential. Many of these plants will do fine with a little less sunlight, although they may not flower as heavily or their foliage as vibrant. Areas on the southern and western sides of buildings usually are the sunniest. The only exception is when houses or buildings are so close together, shadows are cast from neighboring properties. Full sun usually means 6 or more hours of direct unobstructed sunlight on a sunny day. Partial sun receives less than 6 hours of sun, but more than 3 hours. Plants able to take full sun in some climates may only be able to tolerate part sun in other climates. Know the culture of the plant before you buy and plant it!

Watering
How-to : Watering Lawns

Lawns require more water per square foot than any other garden plant. People use a high percentage of their household water budget on lawns, and generally apply more water than they actually need. In this day of water shortages, steps people might consider include: minimizing the lawn size that fits your needs, planting grass types that are best suited for your environment and automating a sprinkler system to apply just enough water and no more.

Select your seed to minimize supplemental watering. Certain bermudas, bluegrass, ryegrass, fine textured fescues and bentgrass varieties can require higher amounts of water, while tall fescues, common bermuda and buffalo grass are more drought tolerant.

In general a lawn needs to be watered if the annual rainfall is below 40 inches per year. Additionally in droughty summer periods, if it hasn't rained at least one inch within the past 7 to 10 days, you need to water your lawn. Some people make the mistake of applying frequent, light sprinklings. This does not benefit the lawn; rather it wastes water and encourages annual weeds. Apply enough water to work its way down into the root zone (the top 12 inches of soil). Then wait to re-water only when rainfall is insufficient. The bottom line is to water slowly, infrequently and deeply.

Planting
How-to : Lawn Soil Preparation

Soil should provide a good rooting environment that supplies adequate moisture, air, and nutrients. The new lawn site should first be worked to insure uniform drainage and water penetration. Remove old sod or existing weeds, which can prevent new seeds from rooting properly. This can be done by hand or with a nonselective herbicide that will kill roots too. Add limestone if the pH of your soil is too low (6.0 or lower); consult your garden center for specific rates to properly adjust pH. Also add a starter fertilizer, which is high in phosphorus (important for new root growth). Organic matter in the form of peat moss or rotted compost may be added at a rate of 1 cubic yard per 1000 sq. feet area . Rake all these materials together, smooth, then firm the seedbed with a roller prior to seeding. Finally soak the seeding area and keep it moist until you are ready to seed.

How-to : Lawn Seed Selection

When planning a lawn consider your climate and the use the lawn will get. Some species do not grow well when subjected to excess foot traffic, others form a denser mat which resists wear.

Grass seed are characterized according to temperature. Cool season grasses are best suited to the northern half of the United States, while warm season grasses are best for the southern half of the US. Cool season grasses, generally grown from seed, withstand cold winters, but suffer in hot, dry summer conditions and should not be mowed too closely. They are usually established during their active growing season, the cooler months.

Warm season grasses, can be seeded, grown from plugs (small circles of turf), sprigs (stolons or rhizomes) or sodded, and are more heat, drought and wear tolerant than cool season grasses. They also can be mowed more closely and will lose color when temperatures creep below 50 degrees F. Warm season grasses are usually established during their growing season, the warmer months. Sod can be layed any time of year.

Instead of a single type of seed, it may be preferable to go with a mixture of different types of seed. While a single type of seed will produce a lawn which looks more uniform, this lawn will be more susceptible to disease and other damage resulting in loss of the lawn. A mixture of seed will provide you with some insurance as a population of different grass types will be better able to survive any adversity.

Warm Season Grasses include: Common Bermuda, Hybrid Bermudas, Centepede, Zoysia, St. Augustine, Buffalo Grass, Bahaia. Cool Season Grasses include: Fescues, Perennial Bluegrass, Rye, Bentgrass.

How-to : Seeding a Lawn

Late summer through early fall are generally the best times to sow grass seed. Sow the seed with a rotary spreader to assure uniform distribution. After seeding, roll the surface to ensure that the seeds are making good contact with the soil. Water seedbed thoroughly and keep it uniformly moist until all seed has sprouted (this may take 2 to 3 weeks). The first mowing cut should be high (about 2 inches) and make sure the mower blades are sharp.

How-to : Locating a Lawn

Lawns are the welcome-mat of the American suburban homestead. Many people take pride in showcasing their house with a thick, green, well maintained lawn. However a lush lawn doesn't just happen. Proper planning and maintenance is needed to get good results. When choosing a lawn site, remember more sun, the better. Red Fescue is probably the most shade tolerant grass, but even it does not take full shade well. Opt for ground covers in shade or beneath dense shade trees. Do not establish a lawn over exposed surface roots of trees or on slopes that would be dangerous to mow. This next step is to decide which type of grass is best suited to your area.

Problems
Miscellaneous
Glossary : Perennial

Perennial: traditionally a non-woody plant that lives for two or more growing seasons.

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