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Antigonon leptopus
( Confederate Vine )

A vigorous evergreen vine with 2- to 5-inch green arrowhead leaves that thrives in heat. Displays a wonderful trail of small showy pink flowers midsummer to fall. Use it for quick-growing summer shade over a patio, or allow it to tumble over fences and walls. Thrives in full sun and well drained soil. Tuberous roots are edible.


How to Grow this Plant:


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Characteristics
Cultivar:n/a  
Family:Polygonaceae  
Size:Height: 20 ft. to 40 ft.
Width: 0 ft. to 0 ft.  
Plant Category:climbers,  
Plant Characteristics:seed start,  
Foliage Characteristics: 
Foliage Color:green,  
Flower Characteristics: 
Flower Color:pinks, reds,  
Tolerances: 
Requirements
Bloomtime Range:Early Summer to Late Fall  
USDA Hardiness Zone:9 to 11  
AHS Heat Zone:Not defined for this plant  
Light Range:Sun to Full Sun  
pH Range:Not defined for this plant  
Soil Range:Some Sand to Some Clay  
Water Range:Normal to Moist  

Plant Care



Fertilizing
How-to : Fertilization for Young Plants

Young plants need extra phosphorus to encourage good root development. Look for a fertilizer that has phosphorus, P, in it(the second number on the bag.) Apply recommended amount for plant per label directions in the soil at time of planting or at least during the first growing season.

How-to : Fertilization for Established Plants

Established plants can benefit from fertilization. Take a visual inventory of your landscape. Trees need to be fertilized every few years. Shrubs and other plants in the landscape can be fertilized yearly. A soil test can determine existing nutrient levels in the soil. If one or more nutrients is low, a specific instead of an all-purpose fertilizer may be required. Fertilizers that are high in N, nitrogen, will promote green leafy growth. Excess nitrogen in the soil can cause excessive vegetative growth on plants at the expense of flower bud development. It is best to avoid fertilizing late in the growing season. Applications made at that time can force lush, vegetative growth that will not have a chance to harden off before the onset of cold weather.

Light
Conditions : Full Sun

Full Sun is defined as exposure to more than 6 hours of continuous, direct sun per day.

Watering
Conditions : Moist and Well Drained

Moist and well drained means exactly what it sounds like. Soil is moist without being soggy because the texture of the soil allows excess moisture to drain away. Most plants like about 1 inch of water per week. Amending your soil with compost will help improve texture and water holding or draining capacity. A 3 inch layer of mulch will help to maintain soil moisture and studies have shown that mulched plants grow faster than non-mulched plants.

Conditions : Normal Watering for Outdoor Plants

Normal watering means that soil should be kept evenly moist and watered regularly, as conditions require. Most plants like 1 inch of water a week during the growing season, but take care not to over water. The first two years after a plant is installed, regular watering is important for establishment. The first year is critical. It is better to water once a week and water deeply, than to water frequently for a few minutes.

Planting
How-to : Planting Vines & Climbers

Choose the planting site for your climber carefully: its long flexible stems may need some shelter, but planting right next to a wall might keep it from the sun or water it needs. Make sure that there's room for the climber to grow when it gets tall, and remember that it will grow towards the sun unless carefully trained. Be sure you will be able to manage the plant once it becomes tall, or that if it has a mind of its own, it won't become a problem.

Select a support structure before you plant your climber. Common support structures are trellises, wires, strings, or existing structures. Some plants, like ivy, climb by aerial roots and need no support. Aerial rooted climbers are fine for concrete and masonary, but should never be allowed to climb on wood. Clematis climbs by leaf stalks and the Passion flower by coiling tendrils. Akebia and Wisteria climb by twining stems in a spiral fashion around its support.

Do not use permanent ties; the plant will quickly outgrow them. Use soft, flexible ties (twist-ties work well), or even strips of pantyhose, and check them every few months. Make sure that your support structure is strong, rust-proof, and will last the life of the plant. Anchor your support structure before you plant your climber.

Dig a hole large enough for the root ball. Plant the climber at the same level it was in the container. Plant a little deeper for clematis or for grafted plants. Fill the hole with soil, firming as you, and water well. As soon as the stems are long enough to reach their support structure, gently and loosely tie them as necessary.

If planting in a container, follow the same guidelines. Plan ahead by adding a trellis to the pot, especially if the container will not be positioned where a support for the vine is not readily available. It is possible for vines and climbers to ramble on the ground or cascade over walls too. Clematis and Roses actually work quite well this way.

Problems
Pest : Spider Mites

Spider mites are small, 8 legged, spider-like creatures which thrive in hot, dry conditions (like heated houses). Spider mites feed with piercing mouth parts, which cause plants to appear yellow and stippled. Leaf drop and plant death can occur with heavy infestations. Spider mites can multiply quickly, as a female can lay up to 200 eggs in a life span of 30 days. They also produce a web which can cover infested leaves and flowers.

Prevention and Control: Keep weeds down and remove infested plants. Dry air seems to worsen the problem, so make sure plants are regularly watered, especially those preferring high humidity such as tropicals, citrus, or tomatoes. Always check new plants prior to bringing them home from the garden center or nursery. Take advantage of natural enemies such as ladybug larvae. If a miticide is recommended by your local garden center professional or county Cooperative Extension office, read and follow all label directions. Concentrate your efforts on the undersides of the leaves as that is where spider mites generally live.

Pest : Whiteflies

Whiteflies are small, winged insects that look like tiny moths, which attack many types of plants. The flying adult stage prefers the underside of leaves to feed and breed. Whiteflies can multiply quickly as a female can lay up to 500 eggs in a life span of 2 months. If a plant is infested with whiteflies, you will see a cloud of fleeing insects when the plant is disturbed. Whiteflies can weaken a plant, eventually leading to plant death if they are not checked. They can transmit many harmful plant viruses. They also produce a sweet substance called honeydew (coveted by ants) which can lead to an unattractive black surface fungal growth called sooty mold.

Possible controls: keep weeds down; use screening in windows to keep them out; remove infested plants away from non-infested plants; use a reflective mulch (aluminum foil) under plants (this repels whiteflies); trap with yellow sticky cards, apply labeled pesticides; encourage natural enemies such as parasitic wasps in the garden; and sometimes a good steady shower of water will wash them off the plant.

Pest : Aphids

Aphids are small, soft-bodied, slow-moving insects that suck fluids from plants. Aphids come in many colors, ranging from green to brown to black, and they may have wings. They attack a wide range of plant species causing stunting, deformed leaves and buds. They can transmit harmful plant viruses with their piercing/sucking mouthparts. Aphids, generally, are merely a nuisance, since it takes many of them to cause serious plant damage. However aphids do produce a sweet substance called honeydew (coveted by ants) which can lead to an unattractive black surface growth called sooty mold.

Aphids can increase quickly in numbers and each female can produce up to 250 live nymphs in the course of a month without mating. Aphids often appear when the environment changes - spring & fall. They're often massed at the tips of branches feeding on succulent tissue. Aphids are attracted to the color yellow and will often hitchhike on yellow clothing.

Prevention and Control: Keep weeds to an absolute minimum, especially around desirable plants. On edibles, wash off infected area of plant. Lady bugs and lacewings will feed on aphids in the garden. There are various products - organic and inorganic - that can be used to control aphids. Seek the recommendation of a professional and follow all label procedures to a tee.

Fungi : Leaf Spots

Leaf spots are caused by fungi or bacteria. Brown or black spots and patches may be either ragged or circular, with a water soaked or yellow-edged appearance. Insects, rain, dirty garden tools, or even people can help its spread.

Prevention and Control: Remove infected leaves when the plant is dry. Leaves that collect around the base of the plant should be raked up and disposed of. Avoid overhead irrigation if possible; water should be directed at soil level. For fungal leaf spots, use a recommended fungicide according to label directions.



Miscellaneous
Glossary : Arbors, Trellises, Pergolas

Arbors, trellises, and pergolas provide vines and climbers the support needed for their growth habit. These can be used as features or accents in a garden to add height, to provide shade, or as a transitional element from one area of the garden to another. Common materials for these structures include wood, metal, and plastic. Select according to the style of your garden and the amount of upkeep required. Painted, wooden structures will be higher maintenance, whereas a rust-proof metal structure will require less maintenance and last longer.

Glossary : Seed Start

Seed Start: easily propagated from seed.

Glossary : Vine

Vine: a plant with a flexible stem that grows either along the ground or climbs by suckers, twining, or tendrils.

Glossary : Landscape Uses

By searching Landscape Uses, you will be able to pinpoint plants that are best suited for particular uses such as trellises, border plantings, or foundations.

Glossary : Drought Tolerant

Very few plants, except for those naturally found in desert situations, can tolerate arid soils, but there are plants that seem to be more drought tolerant than others. Plants that are drought tolerant still require moisture, so don't think that they can go for extended period without any water. Drought tolerant plants are often deep rooted, have waxy or thick leaves that conserve water, or leaf structures that close to minimize transpiration. All plants in droughty situations benefit from an occasional deep watering and a 2-3 inch thick layer of mulch. Drought tolerant plants are the backbone of xeriphytic landscaping.

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