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Seed Germination Database

The following data is provided by Thompson & Morgan Successful Seed Raising Guide. This guide is out of print.

A seed is an embryo plant and contains within itself virtually all the materials and energy to start off a new plant. To get the most from one's seeds it is needful to understand a little about their needs, so that just the right conditions can be given for successful growth.

One of the most usual causes of failures with seed is sowing too deeply; a seed has only enough food within itself for a limited period of growth and a tiny seed sown too deeply soon expends that energy and dies before it can reach the surface. Our seed guide therefore states the optimum depth at which each type of seed should be sown. Another common cause is watering. Seeds need a supply of moisture and air in the soil around them. Keeping the soil too wet drives out the air and the seed quickly rots, whereas insufficient water causes the tender seedling to dry out and die. We can thoroughly recommend the Polythene bag method (No. 11) which helps to overcome this problem. Watering of containers of very small seeds should always be done from below, allowing the water to creep up until the surface glistens.

Most seeds will of course only germinate between certain temperatures. Too low and the seed takes up water but cannot germinate and therefore rots, too high and growth within the seed is prevented. Fortunately most seeds are tolerant of a wide range of temperatures but it is wise to try to maintain a steady, not fluctuating temperature, at around the figure we have recommended in our guide. Once several of the seeds start to germinate the temperatures can be reduced by about 5'F and ventilation and light should be given.

Some perennials and tree and shrub seeds can be very slow and erratic in germination. This may sometimes be due to seed dormancy, a condition which prevents the seed from germinating even when it is perfectly healthy and all conditions for germination are at optimum. The natural method is to sow the seeds out of doors somewhere where they will be sheltered from extremes of climate, predators, etc. and leave them until they emerge, which may be two or three seasons later. Dormancy, however, can be broken artificially and our section Nos. 12-16 deals with this.


HINTS ON SEED RAISING

1. Strelitzia and similar

Do not chip or mark the seedcoat at all but merely remove the orange tuft and soak for up to 2 hours, or even overnight. Sow the seeds in moist sand, pressing them into the sand until only a small part of the black seed is visible and grow in a temperature of 75'F in the dark and ensure that the sand always remains moist. From 7 days onwards inspect the container once a week and as soon as any bulges, roots or shoots are seen remove the germinated seed and pot up in a compost of half peat and half sand. We find that Strelitzias often produce a root without a shoot and we have also found that the young shoots and roots are susceptible to fungal attack. Therefore as soon as possible pot up and provide light and fresh air. Germination can start within 7 days and carry on for 6 months or more.

2. Palms; Banana; Coffee; Mini-Orange; Tea; Cycads and similar

All these items can take several months to germinate and are very erratic in germination. Soak for at least 2 hours in warm water before sowing. (After soaking the parchment shell on the Coffee seeds should be removed with the fingernail). Sow in Levington or Arthur Bowers compost and place in the dark in a temperature of 75F, keeping the compost moist at all times, but not wet. Inspect regularly and occasionally dig around in the compost with a penknife. We normally sow our seeds just below the surface of the soilatid we have found that sometimes they make a very vigorous root without producing a shoot at all. If you find a seed with a root then it should be excavated and potted up into a 3-4' pot immediately when it will produce a shoot. Cycads prefer to be potted up into a compost of half sand and half peat. The Tea requires the above treatment but in a lower temperature of 60-65'F.

3. Clivia and similar

Sow these seeds immediately on receipt in Levington or a peat based compost, covering with a 112 " compost. Water and place in the dark in a temperature of 65-70'F. Germination should occur within 3 weeks.

4. Ferns (Garden and Indoor)

The fern spore needs a fine film of moisture over which to swim in order to complete the process of reproduction, therefore a good peat compost, such as Levington, ought to be used pressed down very firmly and which is a lot more moist than one would normally have it in order to provide the moisture film. The spore (seed) should be sprinkled close together on the surface of the soil and not covered and the container should be covered with a piece of glass and placed in diffused light, but not darkness. It is essential to ensure that the compost remains moist at all times. Germination which commences with the appearance of a film of green jelly over the soil can take anything from 1 -5 months.

You may wish to try germinating the fern spore on blotting paper which is placed in a saucer and kept moist at all times. A transparent cover is inverted over the saucer and the whole lot placed in a well lit but not sunny position. You can actually see the fern spores developing and when you can see small plantlettes appearing along the jelly the blotting paper should be lifted and placed on the surface of a container of Levington compost and watered well. It should then be covered with a transparent cover which can remain there until the plants are quite large.

5. Bromeliads; Cineraria;
Calceolaria; Insect Eaters (Drosera, Nepenthes, Sarracenias);
Living Stones; Meconopsis;
Rubber Plants; Saintpaulia; Streptocarpus;
Tibouchina; Xmas Cactus;
Begonia and similar

These seeds should be sown on the surface of the compost and not covered. The compost should be quite moist and we would recommend that you cover the seed container with a piece of glass or clear plastic and leave in a temperature of approximately 65'F in a position which receives diffused light. Once some of the seeds have germinated air should be admitted gradually otherwise the seedlings may damp off.

Alternatively the seeds can be sown on to moist blotting paper or kitchen towel placed in a saucer. Cover with a transparent cover and place on a windowsill which receives plenty of light, but not direct sunlight. Keep the blotting paper wet at all times and when the tiny seedlings are large enough to handle prick out into small pots. If the INSECT EATERS are sown using the first method described the compost requires to be both moist yet free draining. Use only pure peat with no fertiliser added to which sphagnum moss should be added if available.

6. Alstroemeria; Bonsai;
Clematis; Hardy Cyclamen;
Eucalyptus; Flower Lawn;
Helleborus; Hosta; Primula;
Iris and similar.

Sowing OCTOBER-FEBRUARY. Sow the seeds in John Innes seed compost, covering them with a thin layer of compost. After watering place the seed container outside against a North wall or in a cold frame, making sure they are protected against mice, and leave them there until the spring. The compost should be kept moist but not wet at all times, and if the seed containers are out in the open then some shelter has to be given against excessive rain. In the spring bring the seed containers into the greenhouse, or indoors on to a well lit but not sunny windowsill and keep the compost moist. This should trigger off germination. If the seeds do not germinate in the spring keep them in cool moist conditions throughout the summer. As each seed germinates we would recommend that you transplant it almost immediately into its own pot.

Sowing MARCH-SEPTEMBER. Sow in John Innes seed compost, or something similar, and place each container in a polythene bag and put into the refrigerator (not the freezer compartment) for 2-3 weeks. After this time place the containers outside in a cold frame or plunge them up to the rims in a shady part of the garden border and cover with glass or clear plastic. Some of the seeds may germinate during the spring and summer and these should be transplanted when large enough to handle. The remainder of the seeds may lay dormant until next spring.

Germination of some items, particularly Alstroemeria, Clematis, Hardy Cyclamen and Christmas Rose (Helleborus) may take take 18 months or more.

An alternative method for growing P R I M U LAS is to sow in a peat based compost which has already been moistened and do not cover the seed. Cover the container with a piece of glass or plastic and grow in the dark in a steady temperature of 60F. This is quite adequate and over 65'F germination will be inhibited. When the seeds start to germinate sprinkle a thin layer of fine compost over them and when the seed leaves come through this, move the box to a well lit place with a temperature of 55'F. At no time should the seed box be in full sun.

Hardy Cyclamen have been found to germinate best in total darkness at around 55-60'F. We have had good results with the following method. Place the seeds between two pieces of damp filter paper, Kleenex tissue, etc., then put into a polythene bag and place this into an opaque container in order to exclude all light. Inspect the seeds after a month and remove and prick out as the seedlings appear, returning the ungerminated seeds to total darkness.

7. Freesia

Soak the seeds for 24 hours and sow in Levington compost, or something similar, and place in a temperature of 50-60'F. Germination can sometimes be slow.

8. Nertera Granadensis (Bead Plant)

We recently found that this subject requires a well drained compost which is completely free from fertiliser (e.g. moss peat and sand in equal parts). Sow by barely covering the seed and place a sheet of glass over the container, and leave in a temperature of 65-75'F. Turn the glass daily as excessive condensation can kill the young seedlings. On germination the seedlings look very thin and spindly and the glass should be removed almost immediately and the seed container moved to a well lit but not sunny position. Prick out as soon as possible into a compost of 50% pure peat and 50% sand. Keep moist and shaded until established.

9. Cactus and similar

Make very shallow furrows in compost with a plant label and sow in these. No seed should be completely buried. Water from beneath and cover with glass and brown paper or black Polythene. Place in a dark position in a temperature of 70-75F and keep moist. On germinating move to a light but not sunny windowsill, give plenty of ventilation and water from beneath. Pot up when they begin to overcrowd. During the first winter only keep warm and do not allow to get too dry. If it is not possible to grow warm then keep them drier. Subsequent years keep relatively dry through the winter. Can be planted outside, plunged to the rim, all summer if required.

10. Lilies

Successful germination of seeds of some lilies requires a period of warmth followed by one of cold.

Method 1. Put seeds in a screw top jar in moist (not wet) peat and keep at 70-75F for 3-4 months. Inspect regularly, any normal seedlings (that is having root and seedling leaves) should be pricked out as they germinate. Any seeds which produce roots but not seedling leaves, sow in a pan and keep at 32-40'F for 3 months. Seed leaves and normal growth will follow.

Method 2. 'Sow in a pan in summer (warm spell); put in a frame (or outside covered by a piece of glass) for the winter. Seeds will germinate in spring. Soil Humus rich (peat or leafmould) lime free and very free drainage (use 1/3 grit). Never overwater, keep bulbs almost dry from November to March.

11. For more delicate seeds

A method which has proved useful for not only small delicate seeds but for a wide range of types is the Polythene bag method.

The seeds should be sown on the surface of the moist compost, covered to their recommended depth if necessary and the container is then placed inside a Polythene bag after which the end is sealed with an elastic band. The bag should 'fog-up' with condensation within 24 hours and if this does not occur place the container almost up to its rim in moisture until the soil surface glistens, then replace in the bag and reseal. The bag is not removed and normally no more watering is required until the seeds germinate. However, it is wise, if left for a long period to check the compost occasionally.

The seed container, bag etc. should be placed in a well lit place with a steady temperature. As soon as a fair number of the seedlings emerge remove the polythene bag, lower the temperature a few degrees and provide plenty of light, but not bright sunshine, to ensure that sturdy seedlings develop. It is also helpful to spray the seedlings occasionally for the first 14 days.

SPECIAL TREATMENT

12. Hard Seeds-Chipping

Some seeds, e.g. Sweet peas, lpomaea etc., have hard seed coats which prevent moisture being absorbed by the seed. All that is needed is for the outer surface to be scratched or abraided to allow water to pass through. This can be achieved by chipping the seed with a sharp knife at a part furthest away from the 'eye', by rubbing lightly with sandpaper or with very small seed pricking carefully once with a needle etc.

Some of our geranium seeds have already been treated in this way when you receive them.

13. Hard Seeds-Soaking

Soaking is beneficial in two ways; it can soften a hard seed coat and also leach out any chemical inhibitors in the seed which may prevent germination. 24 hours in water which starts off hand hot is usually sufficient. If soaking for longer the water should be changed daily. Seeds of some species (e.g. Cytisus, Caragana, Clianthus) swell up when they are soaked. If some seeds of a batch do swell within 24 hours they should be planted immediately and the remainder pricked gently with a pin and returned to soak. As each seed swells it should be removed and sown before it has time to dry out.

14. Stratification (cold treatment)

Some seeds need a period of moisture and cold after harvest before they will germinate-usually this is necessary to either allow the embryo to mature or to break dormancy. This period can be artificially stimulated by placing the moistened seed in a refrigerator for a certain period of time (usually 3- 5 weeks at around 41 F). With tiny seeds it is best to sow them on moistened compost, seal the container in a Polythene bag and leave everything in the refrigerator for the recommended period. However, larger seeds can be mixed with 2-3 times their volume of damp peat, placed direct into a Polythene bag which is sealed and placed in the refrigerator. Look at seeds from time to time. The seeds must be moist whilst being pre-chilled, but it doesn't usually benefit them to be actually in water or at temperatures below freezing.

Light also seems to be beneficial after prechilling and so pre-chilled seeds should have only the lightest covering of compost over them, if any is required, and the seed trays etc. should be in the light and not covered with brown paper etc.

15. Double Dormancy

Some seeds have a combination of dormancies and each one has to be broken in turn and in the right sequence before germination can take place; for example, some Lilies, Tree paeonies, Taxus need a three month warm period (68-86'F) during which the root develops and then a three month chilling to break dormancy of the shoots, before the seedling actually emerges. Trillium needs a three month chill followed by three months of warmth and then a further three month chill before it will germinate.

16. Outdoor treatment

The above mentioned methods (12-15) accelerate the germination process and help to prevent seeds being lost due to external hazards (mice, disease, etc.) but outdoor sowing is just as effective albeit longer. The seeds are best sown in containers of free draining compost and placed in a cold frame or plunged up to their rim outdoors in a shaded part of the garden, preferably on the north side of the house avoiding cold drying winds and strong sun.

Recent tests show that much of the beneficial effects of pre-chilling are lost if the seed is not exposed to light immediately afterwards. We therefore recommend sowing the seeds very close to the surface of the soil and covering the container with a sheet of glass. An alternative method especially with larger seeds, is to sow the seed in a well prepared ground, cover with a jam jar and press this down well into the soil so that the seeds are enclosed and safe from predators, drying out etc.

We would also recommend you consult No. 6 which contains further practical suggestions regarding the special treatment of seeds.

Germination days.

The usual time period in which a particular variety will germinate given optimum conditions.

Light/Dark

Seeds needing light should have no newspaper, brown paper etc. placed over the trays. Seeds needing dark for germination should be placed in total darkness.

Slow and irregular germination

This is the column with the "X". Not all seeds will show at once
-prick out each seedling as it becomes large enough to handle and don't discard the container until well over the time suggested.

Temperature

A steady temperature between these limits is recommended-fluctuating temperatures can damage a seedling in its critical early stages.

Compost

Most reputable seed composts will be quite adequate and we have indicated where a loam based type such as John Innes or a peat based type such as Levington would be slightly more suitable. On no account should potting composts, which have additional fertillsers, be used.

Sowing Depth

If in doubt sow shallowly, but always ensure that the compost surface is damp.
J.C. =Just cover the seed with compost or sharp sand. S=Sow on the surface and do not cover at all with compost.

Sowing in situ

Where recommended under the heading of comments, these seeds can be sown out of doors. Moist soil worked down to a fine tilth is essential. For hardy annuals and perennials sowing can be carried out from late winter onwards as soon as the ground is workable and has warriied up and half hardy annuals after all danger of frost is passed.


SUGGESTED SOWING TIMES

Many seeds, particularly in the house plant raric e, can be sown indoors at almost any season of the year. Others, for example bedding plants, have a much limited sowing season because the plants need to be at just the right stage when planted out. We therefore offer the following general guide to sowing times. Your actual tirme of sowing will depend a great deal upon the steady temperature you can maintain in your greenhousese/propagator, soil, local conditions etc.

HA              Hardy Annual                    Late winter/early spring. 
HHA             Half Hardy Annual               Early/ late spring. Normally 4 8 weeks before planting outside.         
GBb             Greenhouse Bulb 
GP              Greenhouse Perennial            Anytime of year. 
GSh             Greenhouse Shrub 
GT              Greenhouse Tree 
HP              Hardy Perennial                 Late winter/late spring and late summer/autumn. 
HHP             Half Hardy Perennial            Late winter/spring. 
HBb             Hardy Bulb                      Late winter/late spring and late summer/autumn
HHBB            Half Hardy Bulb                 Late winter/spring.
HB              Hardy Biennal                   Late spring/early summer. 
HHB             Half Hardy Biennal              Summer/autumn. 
HSh             Hardy Shrub                     Winter/late spring and late summer/autumn.
HHSh-           Half Hardy Shrub                Any time of year. 
HT              Hardy Tree                      Winter/late spring and late summer/autumn. 
HHT             Half Hardy Tree                 Any time of year.

Any plant which is to be planted outside (HA, HHA, HHP, HHSh.) should be well hardened off beforehand. This is best achieved by placing the plants outside in a cold frame for around a week before planting out. The frame can be left uncovered during mild weather but always replaced at night. Alternatively if no frame is available move the boxes outside to a sheltered spot during the day and bring indoors at night.


The "x" stands for slow and irregular germination.

Species        Type     Germ Days          Germ temp Media  Sow Depth   Comments

Abarema        GP        7-56               70-75  Peaty           1/4"   Scarify seed by rubbing between 2 pieces of emery paper.                                            
Abelmoschus    HHA       15-30              75-80  Well drained    1/16"  Soak 1 hour in lukewarm water before sowing.                                                        
Abies          HT        21-30    L     X   68-75  Peaty           S      Soak overnight then pre-chill for 21 days. (No. 14).                                                
Abutilon       HHSH      21-30          X   70-80  Peaty           JC                                                                                                         
Acacia         HHSH      21                 70-80  Well drained    1/16"  See No. 13. Soak in warm water for 4 hours.                                                         
Acaena         HP        30-100         X   50-60  Well drained    1/4"                                                                                                       
Acanthus       HP        21-25              50-55  Peaty           1/4".                                                                                                      
Acer           HT        30-365+  L     X   65-70  Peaty           S      Soak for 2 days then No. 15. (2 months warm moist, 2 months frig)                                   
Achillea       HP        30-100   L     X   60-65  Well   drained  S      Reduce soil temperature at night.                                                                   
Achimenes      GP        21-30              65-75  Well drained    S      See No. 5. Seed is very small.                                                                      
Acnistus       HHSH      21-42              55-65  Well   drained  1/16"                                                                                                      
Aconitum       HP        5-270    L     X   55-60  Well   drained  1/16"  See Nos. 6 & 14. Place in a fridge for 6 weeks.                                                     
Actaea         HP        30-365         X   55-60  Well   drained  JC     See No. 14. (Pre-chill for 6-8 weeks).                                                              
Actinidia      HP        60-90          X   50     Well   drained  1/8"   Male & Female flowers are bome on separate plants.                                                  
Adansonia      GSh       21-365         X   70-80  Peaty           1/16"  Soak in hand hot water. See No. 13.                                                                 
Adenanthera    GSh       30-90              70-75  Well drained    JC     See No. 13. Soak in hot water.                                                                      
Adenium        GSh       7-14     L         65-70  Very Well draineJC                                                                                                         
Adenophora     HP        30-90          X   50-55  Well drained    S                                                                                                          
Adonis         HA, HP    30-120         X   60-65  Well drained    JC                                                                                                         
Aechmia        GP        7-90     L     X   60-70  Peaty           S      See No. 5.                                                                                          
Aethionema     HP        30-90          X   60-65  Well   drained  JC                                                                                                         
Agapanthus     HHP       30-90              60-65  Well   drained  JC                                                                                                         
Agastache      HP        30-90              55     Well   drained  1/16 "                                                                                                     
Agave          GP        30-90    L     X   55     Well   drained  S                                                                                                          
Ageratum       HHA       10-14    L         70-75  Well   drained  S                                                                                                          
Agrostemma     HA        14-21              55-65  Well   drained  1/8"   Can be sown in situ                                                                                 
Ailanthus      HT        30-90    L     X   50-60  Well drained    S      Chip, soak then No. 14 for 2 weeks.                                                                 
Akebia         HSh       30-180   L     X   50-60  Peaty           S      See No. 14. (4 weeks).                                                                              
Albiza         HSh/HT    30-90          X   65-75  Well drained    1/8"   Soak for 12 hours in tepid water before sowing.                                                     
Alchemilla     HP        21-30              60-70  Well   drained  1/8"                                                                                                       
Allium         HBb       30-365   L         50     Well   drained  JC     See No. 14. Place in fridge for 4 weeks.                                                            
Aloe           GP        30-180   L         70     Well   drained  S                                                                                                          
Alonsoa        HHA       14-21              60     Well   drained  1/16"  Cover seed with silver sand.                                                                        
Alpina         GP        30-90              70-75  Peaty           1/8"                                                                                                       
Alstroemeria   HP        30-365         X   65-70  Peaty           1/16"  See No. 13. Soak in warm water. Sow singly in pcrts.                                                
Alyssum        HA        7-14     L         55-75  Peaty           S      Annuals can be sown in situ.                                                                        
Amaranthus     HHA       10-15              70-75  Peaty           1/16"                                                                                                      
Amaryllis      HHBB      21-70          X   65-75  Peaty           1/16"  DO not dry off in the first year after sowing.                                                      
Ammi           HHA       7-21               55-65  Well drained    1/16"                                                                                                      
Ammobium       HHA       10-15              60     Well drained    1/16"                                                                                                      
Amorpha        HSh       30-120         X   50-60  Well drained    1/16"  Soak for 12 hours in tepid water before sowing.                                                     
Anacampseros   GP        30-90    L     X   65-70  Well  drained   S                                                                                                          
Anacyclus      HP        30-60    L     X   55-60  Well  drained   JC     See No. 14. (Pre-chill for 3 weeks.)                                                                
Anagallis      HHA       30-42              50-65  Well  drained   1/8"                                                                                                       
Anaphalis      HP        30-60              55-65  Well  drained   JC                                                                                                         
Anchusa        HA, HP    7-30               70     Well  drained   1/16"  Can be sown in siyu                                                                                 
Andromeda      HSh       30-60    L     X   50-60  Peaty           S      Stand seed pan in a saucer of water to keep soil always moist.                                      
Androsace      HP        30-365         X   50-55  Well  drained   S      See No. 16.                                                                                         
Anemone        HP        28-180         X   65-70  Well  drained   JC     See No. 6.                                                                                          
Anemonopsis    HP        30-18O   L     X   55-60  Well  drained   S      Sow in lime free compost.                                                                           
Anigozanthus   GP        30-90    L         60-65  Peaty           S      See No. 5.                                                                                          
Anoda          HHA       14-21              55-65  Well  drained   1/4"   Can be sown in situ                                                                                 
Antennaria     HP        30-69              55-60  Well  drained   JC     Just cover with silver sand.                                                                        
Anthemis       HP        0-14               70     Well  drained   S                                                                                                          
Anthericum     HP        30-90              50     Well  drained   1/8"                                                                                                       
Anthriscus     HP, HB    14-21              55-65  Well  drained   1/4"   Usually sown in situ                                                                                
Anthyllis      HP        30-60              50     Well  drained   1/8"   See No. 13. Soak in warm water overnight.                                                           
Antigonon      GP        21-30              65-70  Well  drained   JC                                                                                                         
Antirrhinum    HHA       10-21    L         65-75  Peaty           S                                                                                                          
Aphyllanthes   HP        21-56          X   55-60  Peaty           JC                                                                                                         
Aquilegia      HP        30-90    L     X   65-75  Well drained    S      See No. 6 or 14. (Pre-chill for 3 weeks). Keep temperature below 70'F                               
Arabis         HP        20-25    L         70     Well drained    S      Can be sown in situ.                                                                                
Arachis        GA        7-21               70-75  Peaty           1/4"   Sow, then place inside a Polythene bag until germination.                                           
Araucaria      HT        30-60    D         55-60  Peaty           1/4"   Sow immediately                                                                                     
Araujia        HHSh      90-180         X   75-80  Well drained    JC                                                                                                         
Arbutus        HT        60-90    L     X   65-70  Peaty           S      See No. 14. (6-8 weeks).                                                                            
Arctotis       HHA       21-35              60-70  Well drained    JC                                                                                                         
Ardisia        GSh       90-180             75     Well drained    1/4"                                                                                                       
Arenaria       HP        15-30              55-65  Well drained    S                                                                                                          
Argemone       HA        14                 65-70  Well drained    1/8"   Can be sown in situ                                                                                 
Arisaema       HP        30-180   L     X   55-60  Well drained    JC                                                                                                         
Aristea        GP        30-90          X   55-60  Well drained    JC                                                                                                         
Aristolochia   GSh       30-90          X   75-85  Peaty           S      See No. 13. (Soak 48 hours in hand hot water).                                                      
Armeria        HP        14-21              60-70  Well drained    JC     See No. 13. (6-8 hours in hand hot water).                                                          
Arnica         HP        25-30              55     Well drained    JC     Likes an acid sandy soil.                                                                           
Artemisia      HP        30-60    L         60-65  Well drained    S                                                                                                          
Arum           HP        30-l80         X   55-65  Peaty           1/8"                                                                                                       
Aruncus        HP        30-90              55-65  Peaty           S                                                                                                          
Arundinaria    HSh       30-90    L     X   70     Peaty           JC     Stand seed in a saucer of water to keep the soil always moist.                                      
Asarina        HHP       14-21    L         65-70  Well drained    S                                                                                                          
Asarum         HP        7-30               60-65  Well drained    1/16"  Sow as soon as possible.                                                                            
Asclepias      GP, HP    30-90          X   50-75  Peaty           1/16"  See No. 14. (Pre-chil for 3-4 weeks).                                                               
Asparagus      GP        21-30              60-70  Peaty           1/4"   Soak then chip. See Nos. 12 and 13.                                                                 
Asperula       HA        30-42    L         50     Well drained    1/16"  Can be sown in situ or No. 14. (Pre-chill 2 weeks).                                                 
Asphodeline    HP        30             X   70-75  Well drained    JC                                                                                                         
Aster          HHA       10-14              65-70  Well drained    1/16"  Pre-chill perennial asters, see No. 14. (Pre-chill 2 weeks).                                        
Asterolasia    HSh       30-180         X   55-65  Well drained    1/16"                                                                                                      
Astilbe        HP        40-80              65     Peaty           S      See No. 5.                                                                                          
Astrantia      HP        30-180   L     X   55-65  Well   drained  S      See   No. 14. (Pre-chill for 4 weeks).                                                              
Atriplex       HA        9-21               50-55  Well drained    1/16"  Can be sown in situ                                                                                 
Atropa         HP        21-30              50     Well   drained  1/16"                                                                                                      
Aubrieta       HP        14-21    L         65-75  Well drained    S      See   No. 5.                                                                                        
Aucuba         HSh       30-90          X   65-70  Well drained    1/8"                                                                                                       
Azalea         HSh       50-90    L     X   55-60  Peaty           S      See  No. 5 or No. 6. Keep shaded from direct sun.                                                   
Baileya        HHP       7-30               60-65  Well drained    JC                                                                                                         
Balsamorrhiza  HP        14-42              60-65  Well drained    1/16"                                                                                                      
Banksia        HHSH      30-90          X   65-70  Peaty           S      See   No. 5.                                                                                        
Baptisia       HP        7-10               70-75  Well drained    1/4"   Soak then     chip. See Nos. 13 and 12.                                                             
Basil          HHA       7-10                      Well drained    1/16"  Can be sown situ                                                                                    
Bauhinia       GSh       21-42              75-85  Peaty           1/4"   See   No. 13. (Soak 48 hours in hand hot water).                                                    
Beaufortia     HHSH      14-60    L         55-65  Peaty           S      See   No. 5.                                                                                        
Beaumontia     GSh       7-30               70-75  Peaty           1/16"                                                                                                      
Begonia        HHP       15-60    L     X   70-80  Peaty           S      See   No. 5. Fibrous 70-75F, tuberous 65-70F.                                                       
Belamcanda     HP        14-60          X   60-86  Well drained           See   No. 14. (Pre-chill for 7 days).                                                               
Bellis         HB        10-15    L         70     Peaty           1/16"  Reduce soil temperature at night.                                                                   
Beloperone     GP        30-180   L     X   70-75  Peaty           S      See No. 5.                                                                                          
Berberis       HSh       60-180   L     X   50-65  Well drained    S      See  No. 14. (8 weeks).                                                                             
Bergenia       HP        30-180         X   60-70  Peaty           S      See No. 14. (Pre-chill for 2 weeks).                                                                
Beriandiera    HHP       30-90    L         60-70  Well drained    S                                                                                                          
Beta           HB        14-21              55-65  Well drained    1/4"   Usually sown in situ.                                                                               
Betula         HT        30-90    L     X   65-75  Peaty           S      See  No. 14. (10 weeks).                                                                            
Bignonia       GP        30-90          X   60-70  Peaty           S                                                                                                          
Billadiera     HHP       30-60              55     Sandy peat      JC                                                                                                         
Billbergia     HHP       7-90     L         60-70  Peaty           S      See No. 5.                                                                                          
Biscutella     HHA       14-21              55-65  Well drained    JC     Can be sown in situ.                                                                                
Bixa           GT        30-180         X   75-80  Peaty                                                                                                                      
Blandfordia    HHP       30-90+         X   60-70  Sandy peat      JC                                                                                                         
Bletilla       HHP       30-365   L     X   65-70  Peaty           S      See No. 5.                                                                                          
Bmwa (Musa)    GP        7-180          X   70-80  Peaty           1/2"   See   No. 2.                                                                                        
Boea           GP        20-60    L     X   70-75  Peaty           S      See No. 5.                                                                                          
Boronia        GSh       30-60    L         65-75  Peaty           S      See No. 5.                                                                                          
Brachycombe    HHA       10-18              70     Well drained    JC                                                                                                         
Brimeura       HBb       30-60          X   60-65  Sandy peat      JC                                                                                                         
Bromeliads     GP        7-90     L     X   60-70  Peaty           S      See No. 5.                                                                                          
Browallia      GP        14-21    L         75     Peaty           S      See No. 5.                                                                                          
Brunfelsia     GP        30-90          X   70-80  Well drained    JC                                                                                                         
Buddleia       HSh       20-30    L         70-75  Peaty           S      See  No. 14. (Pre-chill for 4 weeks).                                                               
Bulbinella     H/HHBB    30-90          X   55     Well drained    JC                                                                                                         
Buoeurum       HSh       14-60              55-60  Well drained    JC                                                                                                         
Bupthalmum     HP        14-30    L         70-75  Well drained    S                                                                                                          

Cabbage & Kale HB        14-21              70-75  Peaty           1/8"   Can be sown in situ                                                                                 
Cacti          GP        5-180    L     X   75-80  Peaty           S      See No. 9.                                                                                          
Caesalonia     HhSh      14-120         X   75-80  Well drained    1/4"   See No. 13. (Soak 48 hours in hand hot water).                                                      
Cainellia      HSh       30-90          X   70-75  Peaty           1/4   See No. 13 . May also benefit from No. 14.                                                          
Calanddnia     HHA       5-14               55-60  Well drained    1/8"   Can be sown in situ                                                                                 
Calceolaria    GB        14-21    L     X   65-75  Peaty           S      Outdoor varieties keep temperature below 60'F.                                                      
Calendula      HA        10-14    D         -70    Any             1/4"   Can be sown in situ, or autumn for winter greenhouse flowers.                                       
Calibanus      GP        30-120   L     X   70-80  Peaty           S                                                                                                          
Calliopsis     HA        14                 60-65  Weil drained    1/8"   Can be sown in situ                                                                                 
Callirhoe      HP        30-180+  L     X   50     Well drained    S      Can be sown in situ or a cold frame.                                                                
Callistemon    HHSh      14-60    L         55-65  Peaty           S      See No. 5.                                                                                          
Calluna        HSh       30-60    L     X   65-70  Peaty           S      See No. 14. (Pre-chill for 4 weeks).                                                                
Calocedrus     HT        30-90    L         50-60  Peaty           JC     See No. 14. (Pre-chill for 4 weeks).                                                                
Caltha         HP        30-90          X   55-60  Peaty           1/16"  Keep compost slighty moist.                                                                         
Camassia       HBb       30-180         X   55-60  Well drained    1/16"                                                                                                      
Campanula      HP, HB    14-28    L         60-70  Peaty           S      See No. 5.                                                                                          
Campsis        HHSh      30-90          X   70-75  Well drained    S      See No. 14. (Pre-chill for 2 months).                                                               
Canarina       GP        30-180         X   65-75  Well drained    JC                                                                                                         
Candytuft      HA, HP    10+15              68-85  Well drained    1/4"   Can be sown in stiu. Perennials (60-65F) can be slow and irregular.                                 
Canna          HHP       21-60          X   70-75  Peaty           1/4"   See Nos 12 & 13, chip and soak for 48 hours.                                                        
Capsicum       GA        21-30    L         70-75  Peaty           S                                                                                                          
Caragana       HSh       14-21    L         65-70  Well drained    S      See No. 13.                                                                                         
Cardiocrinum   HBb       90-730         X   50     Peaty           1/16"  See No. 6.                                                                                          
Cardiospermum  HHA       21-30              65-70  Well drained    1/2"                                                                                                       
Carica         GSh       30-120         X   75     Peaty           1/8"   See No. 13. (Soak for 40 hours).                                                                    
Carlina        HP        30-60    L         55-60  Well drained    S                                                                                                          
Carpinus       HT        30-365   L     X   65-70  Well drained    S      See No. 15. (1 month at 79'F then 4 months in frig.) or No. 16.                                     
Carthamus      HA        12-18              55-65  Well drained    1/4"   Can be sown in stiu                                                                                 
Caryopteris    HSh       30-90          X   65-70  Well drained    JC                                                                                                         
Cassia         GSh       7-90               70-75  Well drained    1/8"   See No. 12.                                                                                         
Casuarina      GT        30-90              65     Well drained    JC                                                                                                         
Catalpa        HT        14-30    L     X   60-70  Peaty           S      Give seedlings good ventilation to prevent damping off.                                             
Catananche     HP        21                 65-75  Well drained    1/16"                                                                                                      
Catharanthus   GA/HHA    15-20    D         70-75  Peaty           1/8"                                                                                                       
Ceanothus      HSh       30-60    L         65-70  Well drained    S      Soak overnight then treat as No. 14 for 2 weeks.                                                    
Cedrus         HT        14-60    L     X   60-65  Well drained    S      Soak for 2-3 hours then treat as No. 14 for 3 weeks.                                                
Celosia        GA        10-15    L         70-75  Well  drained   JC     Do not sow too early - likes warm bouyant conditions.                                               
Centaurea      HP, HA    7-14     D         60-70  Well  drained   1/16"                                                                                                      
Centranthus    HP        21-30              60-70  Well  drained   JC     Can be   sown in situ.                                                                              
Cepalaria      HP        21-60              55-65  Well  drained   1/4"   Can be   sown in situ.                                                                              
Cephalilitrum  HHA       14-21              65-75  Well  drained   JC                                                                                                         
Cephalotaxus   HSh       14-60          X   60-65  Peaty           JC                                                                                                         
Cerastium      HP        5-10               60     Well  drained   1/16"                                                                                                      
Ceratotheca    HHA       8-14               70-75  Well  drained-  1/8"                                                                                                       
Cercis         HSh       30-90    L     X   70-75  Well drained    JC     See No.13. Soak in hand hot water then No. 14 for 2-3 months.                                       
Cerinthe       HHA-      7-14               60-65  Well  drained   1/16"  Can be sown in situ                                                                                 
Chaenomeles    HSh       70-90    L     X   55-65  Well drained    S      See No. 14. (Pre-chill for 7-10 weeks).                                                             
Chamaecyparis  HT, HHT   30-60    L         50-60  Peaty           JC     See No 14. (Pre-chilll for 3 weeks).                                                                
Cheiranthus    HB        14-21              65-75  Well  drained   1/8"   Sow in a reserve bed, pick out 6" apart. Plant out in Oct.                                          
Chelidonium    HP        30-365         X   55-65  Well  drained   1/8"   See No. 16.                                                                                         
Chelone        HP        14-42              55-65  Well  drained   1/16"  Needs good drainage.                                                                                
Chiastopholum  HP        30-60              55     Well  drained   S      Seeds very small.                                                                                   
Chimonanthus   HSh       63-90    L     X   50-60  Well drained    S      See No. 14. (Pre-chill for 5-8 weeks).                                                              
Chionanthus    HSh       30-180   L     X   60-70  Well drained    S      See,No4. (Pre-chill for 1 month)                                                                    
Chionodoxa     HBb       30-90          X   55     Well  drained   1/4"                                                                                                       
Chlorogalum    HBb       30-90          X   55-80  Well  drained   1/8"   See No. 6.                                                                                          
Chrysanthemum  HA, HP    10-18              60-70  Peaty           1/8"   Annuals can be sown in situ. HP's reduce temperature at night.                                      
Cimicifuga     HP        30-365         X   55-60  Well drained    1/16"                                                                                                      
Cineraria      GP        14-21    L     X   70     Well drained    JC                                                                                                         
Cirrhopetalum  GP        30-180   L     X   65-70  Well drained    S                                                                                                          
Cirsium        HP        15-18              70-75  Well drained    1/8"                                                                                                       
Cissus         GSh       30-180         X   70-75  Well drained    JC                                                                                                         
Cistus         HSh       7-30     L         65-70  Peaty           S      See No., 5.                                                                                         
Citinus        HSh       30-90          X   55-60  Peaty           1/16  Chip and soak for 12 hours. Pre-chill 6-9 weeks.                                                    
Cladanthus     HA        30-35              70-75  Well drained    JC                                                                                                         
Clarkia        HA        21                 -      Well drained    1/4"   Best sown in situ, as sturdier plants are produced.                                                 
Claytonia      HA        14-21              65-70  Well drained    1/8"                                                                                                       
Clematis       HP        30-270+        X   70-75  Well drained    1/8"   See No's. 6 & 16.                                                                                   
Cleome         HHA       10+14    L         70-75  Well drained    S      See No. 14. (Pre-chill for 2 weeks).                                                                
Clerodendron   Hsh       60-90    L     X   65-70  Well drained    S      See No. 14. (Pre-chill for 4-6 weeks).                                                              
Clerodendrum   GSh       21-60          X   70-75  Well drained    1/8"                                                                                                       
Clianthus      GSh       14-42              65-70  Well drained    1/16"  See No. 13.                                                                                         
Clintonia      HP        30-90              55-60  Sandy peat      JC     Keep compost always just moist.                                                                     
Clitoria       GP        15-20              70-75  Well drained    1/16"  See Nos. 12 and 13. (Chip and soak for 24 hours).                                                   
Clivia         GP        7-21               80-85  Peaty           1/4"   Sow immediately. See No. 3. .                                                                       
Cobaea         HHA       21-30              70-75  Well drained    1/16"  Stick the seed vertically into the compost.                                                         
Coccoloba      GSh       10-21              65-70  Well drained    1/4"   See No. 13. (Soak for 24 hours).                                                                    
Codonopsis     HP        7-42     L         60-70  Slighty acid    S                                                                                                          
Coffea         GSh       42-56    L         75     Peaty           S      See No. 2. (Soak tor 48 hours).                                                                     
Colchicum      HBb       30-365         X   55-65  Peaty           1/8"   See No. 16.                                                                                         
Coleus         HHP       10-20    L         65-75  Peaty           S      Indoors, likes to be warm with plenty of bright light.                                              
Collinsia      HHA       14-21              -      Well drained    1/4"   Best sown in situ, thin out to 6'.                                                                  
Collomia       HA        21                 -      Well drained    1/8"   Best sown in situ, thin out to 6".                                                                  
Columnea       GP        30-120   L     X   72-75  Peaty           S                                                                                                          
Colutea        HSh       7-21               65-70  Well drained    1/16  Chip and soak. See Nos. 12 and 13.                                                                  
Commelina      HHP       30-37              70     Wall drained    1/8"                                                                                                       
Conophytum     GP        10-40    L     X   75-00  Wall drained    S                                                                                                          
Convallaria    HP        60-365+  L     X   50-60  Wall drained    JC     See No. 16.                                                                                         
Convolvulus    HA        5-14               70-80  Well drained    1/8"   Chip (12) or soak (13) the seeds.                                                                   
Cordyline      GP        30-90              75-80  Peaty           1/16"  See No. 13. (Soak for 10 minutes in hand hot water).                                                
Cordyline      HHSh      30-60          X   65-70  Peaty           1/16                                                                                                      
Coreopsis      HP        20-25    L         55-70  Wall drained    S      Annuals can be sown In situ                                                                         
Cornus         HSh       90-730   L     X   50-60  Well drained    S      See No.15. (2 months at 70F then 3 months in frig) or No. 16.                                       
Coronilla      HHSh      30-60              65-75  Well drained    JC                                                                                                         
Correa         HHSh      30-90          X   65-72  Wall drained    JC                                                                                                         
Cortaderia     HP        14-21    L         60-75  Peaty           S      See No. 5.                                                                                          
Corydalis      HP        30-60    L         50-60  Well drained    S                                                                                                          
Cosmos         HHA       5-10               68-86  Well drained    1/8"   Can be sown in situ                                                                                 
Cotoneaster    HSh       180-365  L     X   70     Acid Peaty      S      See No.15. (3-5 months at 70'F then 3 months in frig) or No. 16.                                    
Cotula         HHA       14-42              50     Well drained    1/16"                                                                                                      
Crambe         HP        21-42              -      Well drained    1/2"   Best sown In situ.                                                                                  
Craspedia      HHA       14-30              70-75  Peaty           1/8"   Can be sown in situ.                                                                                
Crataegus      HSh       180-730  L     X   50-60  Well drained    S      See No.15. (3-5 months at 70'F then 3 months in frig) or No. 16.                                    
Crepis         HA        5-14               70-80  Wed drained     JC                                                                                                         
Crinodendron   H/HHSh    30-120         X   55-65  Well drained    JC     See No.13. (Soak for 3 hours).                                                                      
Crocosmia      HP        30-90              55-60  Well drained    1/16"                                                                                                      
Crocus         HBb       30-180         X   55-65  Well drained    1/8"                                                                                                       
Crossandra     GP        25-30    L     X   75-80  Peaty           S      See No. 5.                                                                                          
Crotalaria     GSh       21-30              65-75  Well drained    1/16"  See No. 13. (Soak for 2 hours)                                                                      
Cryptomeria    HT        30-60          X   55-65  Peaty           1/16                                                                                                      
Cryptostegia   GCI       30-90          X   65-75  Well drained    1/16"  See No. 13. (Soak for 2 hours)                                                                      
Cunonia        GSh       30-60              70-75  Peaty           1/16"                                                                                                      
Cuphea         HHP       8-10     L         70     Peaty           S                                                                                                          
Cupressus      HT        30-90    L     X   65-75  Peaty           S      See No.14. (Pre-chill for 3 weeks).                                                                 
Cyananthus     HP        14-60    L         60-65  Peaty           S      See No. 5.                                                                                          
Cycad          GP        30-90          X   70-75  Well drained           Half bury the seed lengthwise.                                                                      
Cyclamen       GP        30-60    D     X   55-60  Peaty           1/4"   Keep moist and in total darkness.                                                                   
Cyclamen       HP        30-18O   D     X   55-60  Peaty           1/4"   See No. 6.                                                                                          
Cynara         HP        14-30              50-55  Well drained    1/8"   Can be sown In situ.                                                                                
Cynoglossum    HA        5-10     D         65-75  Peaty           1/4"                                                                                                       
Cyperus        HHP       25-30              70-75  Peaty           JC     Keep the compost slighty moist.                                                                     
Cyphomandra    GP        20-25              70-75  Peaty           1/16"                                                                                                      
Cyphostemma    GP        30-60          X   70     Well drained    1/4"   See' No. 13. (Soak for 2 hours).                                                                    
Cypripedium    HP        30-365   L     X   65-70  Peaty           S      See No. 5. Very difficuft outside the laboratory.                                                   
Cyrtanthus     GP        30-90          X   55-65  Peaty           S      Keep the compost silghty moisty                                                                     
Cytisus        HSh       25-30    L         70-75  Well drained    S      See No.13. Transplant to final quarters while still small.                                          

Daboecia       HSh       30-120   L     X   55-65  Acid peat       S      Never allow compost to dry out.                                                                     
Dahlia         HHA       5-20               65-70  Peaty           1/16"  Do not let the compost dry out.                                                                     
Daphne         HSh       150- 365 L     X   50-60  Well drained    S      See No. 15.(2 months at 70F then 3 months in the frig)                                              
Darlingtonia   HP        30-90          X   75-80  Peaty           S      Do not let the compost dry out. See also No. 5.                                                     
Datura         HHSH      21-42              55-65  Well drained    1/8"                                                                                                       
Davidia        HT        300-365        X   50-65  Peaty           1/4   See No. 15.(3-4 months warin moist, 3- months frig.).                                               
Decaisnea      HSh       30-180         X   55-60  Well drained    1/4                                                                                                       
Delonix        GT        30-90          X   75-85  Peaty           1/16"  See No. 13. (Soak for 24 hours).                                                                    
Delosperma     HHP       10-40    L         75     Well drained    S                                                                                                          
Delphinium     HP        14-28    D     X   50-55  Peaty           1/16"  High temps. cause dormancy. See No. 14. (Pre-chill for 2 weeks).                                    
Desmodium      GA        30-90              75-80  Wall drained    1/16"                                                                                                      
Dianella       H/HHP     30-90              65-70  Well drained    1/16"                                                                                                      
Dianthus       HHA, HP   14-21              60-70  Well drained    JC                                                                                                         
Diascia        HHA       14-30              60     Well drained    JC                                                                                                         
Diceritra      HP        30-180   L     X   55-60  Well drained    JC     See No. 14. (Pre-chill for 6 weeks).                                                                
Dichorisandra  GP        7-60               70-75  Peaty           JC                                                                                                         
Dictamnus      HP        30-180         X   55-60  Well drained           See No. 14. (Pre-chill for 4-8 weeks).                                                              
Didymocarpus   Gp        14-56    L     X   65-70  Well drained    S                                                                                                          
Dierama        HP        30-180   L     X   60-65  Well drained    S      See No. 5.                                                                                          
Dietes         HHP       30-90          X   50-60  Well drained    JC                                                                                                         
Digitalis      HP, HB    15-20    L         60-65  Peaty           S      Can be sown in situ.                                                                                
Dimorphotheca  HHA       10-15    L         60-70  Peaty           JC                                                                                                         
Dionaea        GP        30-90    L     X   75-80  Peaty           S      See No. 5.                                                                                          
Dioon          GP        30-90          X   70-75  1/2 peat, 1/2 sa1/4"   See No. 2.                                                                                          
Dioscorea      HP        21-36              70-75  Peaty           1/8"                                                                                                       
Diplarrhena    HP        30-90              55-65  Well drained    JC                                                                                                         
Diplolaena     GSh       30-150   L     X   7 -8O  Peaty           JC                                                                                                         
Dipsacus       HB        4-30               -      Wall drained    1/4"   Best sown in situ                                                                                   
Disporum       HP        30-180+  L     X   55-65  Well drained    JC     See No. 14. (Pre-chill for 6 weeks).                                                                
Dizygotheca    HHSh      20-30    L         70     Peaty           S                                                                                                          
Dodecatheon    HP        90-365             60-70  Well drained    1/16"  See No. 6.                                                                                          
Dolichos       HHA       14-30              70     Well drained    1/16"  See No. 13.                                                                                         
Domnicum       HP        15-20    L         70     Well drained    S      Reduce sod tempeature at night                                                                      
Doryanthes     HHP       30-60              65     Peaty           JC     See No. 13. (Soak for 3 hours).                                                                     
Draba          HP        30-90          X   55     Well drained    JC     See Nos. 6 and 14.                                                                                  
Dracaena       GSh       30-180   L     X   75-85  Well drained    S      Keep the compost slightly moist                                                                     
Dracunculus    HP        30-180         X   55-65  Peaty           JC     Keep the compost slightly moist                                                                     
Drosera        GP        30-90    L         55-65  Peaty           S      See No. 5.                                                                                          
Dryas          HP        50-180         X   60-70  Well drained    JC     See No. 6.                                                                                          
Duchesnia      HP        30-90    L     X   55-65  Well drained    JC                                                                                                         
Duranta        GSh       30-60              70-75  Peaty           JC                                                                                                         

Eccremocarpus  HP        30-60          X   -60    Well drained    JC     Cover the seed slightly with silver sand                                                            
Echeveria      HHP       21-90    L     X   55-65  Well drained    JC                                                                                                         
Echinacea      HP        10-21    L         70-75  Peaty           1/8"   Reduce soil temperature at night.                                                                   
Echinops       HP        15-60              65-75  Peaty E         1/16"                                                                                                      
Echium         HA        7-14               70     Well drained    1/4"   Can be sown in situ.                                                                                
Edraianthus    HP        30-60    L         55-65  Well drained    1/16"                                                                                                      
Egg Plant      GA        10-21          X   70     Peaty           1/8"   Keep the compost slightly moist                                                                     
Elaeagnus      HT/HSH    140-180        X   50-65  Well drained    1/16  See No. 15.(4 weeks warm moist, 8-12 weeks frig.).                                                  
Emilia         HHA       8-15               70     Well drained    1/16"                                                                                                      
Emnurus        HP        30-365   L     X   55-65  Well drained    JC     See No. 16.                                                                                         
Enkianthus     HSh       25-60    L     X   60-70  Peaty           S      See No. 14.(Pre-chill for 6 weeks).                                                                 
Epilobium      HP        14-30              50-60  Well drained    1/8"                                                                                                       
Episcia        GP        25-40    L         70-80  Peaty           S      Seeds dust like. See also No. 5.                                                                    
Eranthis       HBb       30-365         X   60-68  Well drained    1/16"  See No. 6 and 14.                                                                                   
Erica          HSh       30-60    L     X   65-70  Peaty           S      See No. 14.(Pre-chill for 4 weeks).                                                                 
Erica          GP        30-120   L     X   60-70  Acid Peat       S      See No. 5.                                                                                          
Erigeron       HP        15-20                     Well drained    S                                                                                                          
Erinus         HP        20-25                     Well drained    S                                                                                                          
Eriobotrya     HHSh      30-180                    Well drained    JC     See No. 13. (Soak for 24 hours).                                                                    
Eriophyllum    HP        14-42                     Well drained    1/8"   Best sown outdoors and transplanted                                                                 
Eryngium       HP        5-90     L     X          Well drained    S      See No. 6.                                                                                          
Erysium        HP        14-30                     Well drained    1/4"   Sow in situ.                                                                                        
Erythrina      HHSh      10-15              70-75  Peaty           1/8"   See No. 13. (Soak for 24 hours).                                                                    
Erythronium    HBb       30-365         X   50-60  Well drained    1/8"   See No. 6.                                                                                          
Eschscholtzia  HA        14-21              60-65  Well drained    1/4"   Resents transplanting, best sown in situ.                                                           
Eucalyptus     HHSh, HT  14-90          X   70-75  Peaty           S      Sow seed and chaff together. See No. 14. (Pre-chill for 4 weeks).                                   
Eucnide        HHA       21-30              60-70  Well drained    1/8"                                                                                                       
Eucomis        GBb       20-25              70-75  Peaty           1/16"                                                                                                      
Euonymus       HSh       220-365        X   50-65  Well drained    1/16   See No. 15.(8-12 weeks warm moist, 8-16 weeks frig.).                                               
Eupatorium     HP        30-90          X   55     Well drained    JC                                                                                                         
Euphorbia      HHA,HP,GSh10-15          X   70-80  Well drained    1/4"     Pre chill HPs for 7 days and then soak for 2 hours.Sow in lime free compost (Ericaceous).          
Eustoma        HHP       10-21    L         68-77  Well drained    S                                                                                                          
Exacum         GA        15-20    L         70-75  Peaty           S      Seed dust like. See No. 5.                                                                          

Fagus           HT       30-365   L     X   50-60  Well drained    JC      Soak overnight then see No. 14 (pre-chill for 6 weeks) or No. 16.                                  
Fascicularia   HHP       30-120   L     X   60-70  Peaty           S      See No. 5.                                                                                          
Fatsia         HHSH      15-20              70-75  Peaty           1/4"     Keep the compost slightly moist.                                                                    
Faucaria       GP        14-30          X   60     Well drained    JC     Just cover with sharp sand.                                                                         
Feijoa         HHSH      21-42              55-60  Peaty           1/16"  Rinse seeds 3 times before sowing.                                                                  
Felicia AmelloiHHP       30                 55-60  Well drained    JC     See No. 14. (Place in fridge for 3 weeks).                                                          
Felicia BergeriHHA       30                 70     Well drained    JC                                                                                                         
Ferns          HP, GP    30-180   L         65     Peaty           S      See No. 4.                                                                                          
Ficus          GSh       15-90    L     X   70-80  Peaty           S      See No. 5.                                                                                          
Filipendula    HP        30-90              55-60  Well drained    JC                                                                                                         
Flower Lawn    HP        30-180   L     X   55-65  Well drained    S      See Nos. 6 or 16.                                                                                   
Foeniculum     HP        10-14    D         65     Well drained    1/8"   Dislikes transplanting, sow in situ.                                                                
Forsythia      HSh       30-90              55-65  Well drained    1/4                                                                                                       
Francoa        HHP       14-30    L     X   50-55  Peaty           S      See No. 6.                                                                                          
Freesia        HHBB      25-30          X   65-75  Peaty           Y4'    See No. 7.                                                                                          
FremontodendronHHSh/HSh  30-60              65-70  Well drained    JC                                                                                                         
Fritillaria    HBb       330-540        X   55-M   Peaty           1/16"  See No. 6.                                                                                          
Fuchsia        HSh       21-90    L     X   70-75  Peaty           S      See No.5. Soak in rainwater for 3-4 days. Keep compost moist.                                       
Fuchsia        GP        21-90    L     X   70-75  Peaty           S      See No. w. Soak in rain water for 3-4 days. Keep compost moist.                                     

Gaillardia     HP, HHA   15-20    L     X   70-75  Peaty           S      Reduce soil temperature at night.                                                                   
Galega         HP        14-60              -      Well drained    <"     Best sown outdoors and transplanted.                                                                
Galtonia       HBb       15-20          X   70     Peaty           1/16"                                                                                                      
Gardenia       GSh       25-30              70-75  Peaty           1/8"   Use a lime free compost (Ericaceous).                                                               
Gaultheria     HSh       30-60    L         65-70  Peaty           S      See No.14. (Pre-chill for 4-10 weeks). Acid soils only.                                             
Gaura          HHA       14-30              65-75  Well drained    1/16"                                                                                                      
Gazania        HHA       8-21     D         60-65  Well drained    1/8"                                                                                                       
Genista        HSh       14-30              55-65  Well drained    JC     See No.13.                                                                                          
Gentiana       HP        14-180   D     X   70-75  Lime free       JC     See No. 14. (Pre-chill for 2 months).                                                               
Gentianopsis   HA        21-30    L         -      Well drained    S      Sow outdoors and thin. Sensitive to root disturbance.                                               
Geranium       HHP       3-21           X   70-75  Wd drained      JC                                                                                                         
Geranium       HP        30-90          X   50     Well drained    JC     See No. 6.                                                                                          
Gerbera        GP        15-25    L         70-75  Peaty           JC     Sow sharp end down, don't cover completly.                                                          
Gesneria       GP        14-21    L         70-75  Peaty           S      See No. 5.                                                                                          
Geum           HP        21-28+         X   65-70  Peaty           1/16"  Reduce soil temperature at night.                                                                   
Gilia          HA        17                 -      Well drained    1/8"   Sow outdoors and thin out.                                                                          
Gingko         HT        30-60    L     X   70-75  Peaty           1/8   See No.14. (Pre-chill for 8-10 weeks).                                                              
Glaucidium     HP        30-90          X   50-55  Peaty           JC                                                                                                         
Glaucium       HA        14-21    D         60-65  Well drained    JC     Transplant carefully, best sown In situ.                                                            
Gleditschia    HT        14-30              65-70  Well drained    JC     Chip and soak for 24 hours. See Nos. 12 and 13.                                                     
Globularia     HP        10-30    L         55     Well drained    S      See No. 14. (Pre-chil for 3 weeks).                                                                 
Gloriosa       HHBB      30                 70-75  Peaty           1/16"                                                                                                      
Gloxinia       GP        15-30    L     X   65-75  Peaty           S      See No. 5.                                                                                          
Gnaphalium     HP        14-21    L         60-70  Well drained    s                                                                                                          
Godetia        HA        7-14               60-65  Well drained    1/4"   Can  be sown in situ                                                                                
Gomphrena      HHA       6-8      L         70-75  Well drained    JC                                                                                                         
Gourds         HHA       15-29              80     Peaty           1/4"   Can  also treat as No. 5.                                                                           
Grass Tree     HHP       30-180   L     X   65     Peaty           S      See  No. 4.                                                                                         
Grasses        HP, HHA   10-90    L     X   60-75  Peaty           S                                                                                                          
Grevillea      HHSh      20-25    L         75-80  Well drained    S      See  No. 13. (Soak for 24 hours).                                                                   
Gunnera        HP        14-60          X   70-80  Peaty           1/16"                                                                                                      
Guzmania       GP        7-90     L     X   60-70  Peaty           S      See  No. 5.                                                                                         
Gymnocladus    HT        30-90          X   65-70  Well drained    1/4,  Chip and soak in warm water for 24 hours. See Nos. 12 and 13.                                       
Gypsophila     KA, HP    10-15          X   70     Peaty           JC                                                                                                         

Hacquetia      HP        30-180         X   55     Wall drained    JC     See  No. 16.                                                                                        
Haemanthus     GBb       7-42               60-65  Peaty           JC                                                                                                         
Hamamelis      HSh       270-365  L     X   50-60  Peaty           1/16  See No.15. (3 months at 70'F then place in frig. for 3 months).                                     
Haplopappus    HP        21-30              60-70  Well drained    1/8"                                                                                                       
Hardenbergia   HHP       30-90          X   55-65  Well drained    1/8"   See  No. 13. (Soak for 24 hours).                                                                   
Harpephyllum   GP        10-30              70-75  Peaty           1/4"   See No. 13.  (Soak for 24 hours).                                                                   
Hawothia       HHP       21-60    L         60-65  Well drained    JC                                                                                                         
Hbibiscus      HHP, GA   15-30          X   75-80  Peaty           1/16"  Chip and soak. See Nos. 12 & 13.                                                                    
Hebe           HHSh      15-30              70     Peaty           JC                                                                                                         
Hedychium      HHP       20-25              70-75  Peaty           1/16"  See No. 13.  (Soak for 2 hours).                                                                    
Hedysarum      HP        14-42              55-65  Well drained    1/16"                                                                                                      
Helanium       HP        7-10               70     Peaty           1/16"  Can be sown in situ. Reduce soil temperature at night.                                              
Helianthemum   HP        15-20              70-75  Well drained    S      See No. 5.                                                                                          
Helianthus     HA        10-14              70-85  Peaty           1/4"   Can be sown in situ.                                                                                
Helichrysum    HHA       7-10     L         65-75  Well drained    S                                                                                                          
Heliophila     HHA       14-21              60-65  Well drained    1/16"                                                                                                      
Heliopsis      HP        10-15              70     Well drained    1/16"                                                                                                      
Heliotropium   HHP       14-42          X   65-75  Well drained    1/16"                                                                                                      
Helipterum     HA        14-20              65-75  Peaty           1/16"  Can be sown in situ                                                                                 
Helleborous    HP        30-545         X   60-65  Well drained           See No. 6. May need to go through two winters outdoors.                                             
Hemerocallis   HP        21-49              60-70  Well drained    1/8"   See No. 14. (Pre-chill for 6 weeks).                                                                
Hemiphora      GP        30-120         X   70-75  Peaty           JC                                                                                                         
Hepatica       HP        30-360   L         50-55  Well drained    JC     See No. 14. (Pre-chill for 3 weeks).                                                                
Heracleum      HP        30-90              -      Well drained    1/4"   Sow in situ. See No. 6.                                                                             
Herniaria      HP        10-12              70     Well drained    JC                                                                                                         
Hesperis       HB        20-25    L         70-85  Peaty           S      Can be sown in s&LL Reduce soil temw=e at night.                                                    
Heuchera       HP        10-60    L     X   65-70  Well drained    S                                                                                                          
Hibiscus       HSh       30-60          X   70-75  Well drained    1/16  See No.13.                                                                                          
Hieracium      HP        21-30              50-60  Well drained    JC                                                                                                         
Hippeastrum    HHBB      30-42              75     Pemy            1/8"                                                                                                       
Hippophae      HSh       30-180   L     X   55-65  Well drained    JC     See No.14. (Pre-chill for 14 weeks).                                                                
Hollyhock      HA, HP    10-12    L         60-70  Peaty           S      Can be sown in situ.                                                                                
Holmskioldia   GSh       30-90          X   60-65  Wei drained     JC                                                                                                         
Holodiscus     HSh       30-180         X   60-65  Well drained    S                                                                                                          
Hosta          HP        30-90          X   50     Peaty           1/16"  Keep compost slighty moist.                                                                         
Humulus        HP        25-30              70-75  Well drained    1/4"   Can be sown in situ.                                                                                
Hunnemannia    HHA       15-20              70-75  Well drained    1/16"  Can be sown in situ.  Makes a nice pot plant.                                                       
Hutchutinsia   HP        14-30              -      Well drained    1/4"   Sow in situ.                                                                                        
Hyoscymus      HB, HA    14-42              -      Wed drained     1/8"   Sow in situ.                                                                                        
Hypericum      HSh       30-90          X   50-55  Well drained    JC                                                                                                         
Hypoestes      GP        10-21              70-75  Well drained    JC                                                                                                         
Hyssopus       HP        14-42              60-70  Peaty           1/16"                                                                                                      

Iliamna        HP        30-360   L     X   55-65  Well drained    1/16"  See  No. 14. (Pre-chill for 3 weeks).                                                               
Impatiens      HHA       21-30    L     X   70-75  Peaty           S      See  No. 5. Maintain a very high humidity until germination.                                        
Incarvillea    HP        25-30              55-65  Well drained    S      See No. 5.                                                                                          
Indigafera     HSh       30-60              65-70  Well drained    1/16  Pour nearly boiling water over seed and leave to soak overnight.                                    
Indigofera     HHSh      30-90          X   50     Wall drained    ye,    See  No. 13. (Soak for 24 hours).                                                                   
Inula          HP        14-42              55-65  Well drained    1/16"  Can  be sown in situ                                                                                
Ionopsidium    HA        14-21              55-60  Well drained    1/16"  Sow in situ.                                                                                        
Ipomaea        HHA       5-21           X   70-85  Peaty           1/4"   Chip and soak. See Nos. 12 and 13.                                                                  
Iris           HP        30-545         X   60-70  Peaty           1/4".  See No. 6. May take two winters outdoors.                                                           
Isatis         HB        14-42              50     Well drained    1/16"  Sow in situ.                                                                                        
Ixiolirion     HBb       30-90          X   50     Well drained    1/16"                                                                                                      
Ixora          GSh       30-120         X   70-75  Well drained    1/16"  See No. 14. (Pre-chill for 3 weeks).                                                                

Jacaranda      GSh       10-15              70-85  Peaty           JC                                                                                                         
Jacobaea       HA        8-21               60-65  Well drained    1/8"                                                                                                       
Jacobinia      GP        30-180         X   75-80  Peaty           1/8"   See No. 13. soak for 24 hours).                                                                     
Jasione        HP        10-21              70     Well drained    JC                                                                                                         
Jasminum       HSh       20-30              70-75  Well drained    JC                                                                                                         
Jatropha       GP        30-120         X   65-75  Well drained    1/16"                                                                                                      
Jovellana      H/HHSH    30-90          X   60-50  Well drained    S                                                                                                          
Juglans        HT        30-180   L     X   50-60  Peaty           JC     See No.14. (2-3 weeks). Place so that dividing line is at the top.                                  
Juniperus      HT        30-180   L     X   45-50  Peaty           S      Soak for  24 hours. High temperatures prevent germination.                                          

Kalanchoe      GP        7-30     L     X   65-75  Weil drained    S      Likes good air circulation.                                                                         
Kallstroemia   HHA       14-21          X   60-65  Well drained    JC                                                                                                         
Kalmia         HSh       30-60    L     X   70-    Sandy peat      S      See No. 14. (Pre-chill for 3 months).                                                               
Kalmiopsis     HSh       30-60    L         65-70  Acid, sandy peatS                                                                                                          
Kaulfussia     HA        21-30              -      Well drained    1/4"'  Sow in situ.  Thin to 6'.                                                                           
Kentranthus    HP        21-40              65- 70 Well drained    JC                                                                                                         
Kirengeshoma   HP        30-300             55-65  Peaty           JC     Keep compost uniformly moist.                                                                       
Knautia        HP        10-21                     Well drained    1/4"   Best sown in situ  Thin to 6'.                                                                      
Kniphofia      HP        10-30              70-75  Peaty           1/4"   Reduce soil temperature at night                                                                    
Kochia         HHA       10-15    L         70-75  Well drained    S                                                                                                          
Koelreuteria   HT        30-60    L     X   55-65  Peaty           JC     See No.  13. (Use boiling water) then No. 14 (place in frig. for 3 weeks).                          
Kolwitzia      HT        40-70    L     X   65-70  Well drained    JC     Soak for  24 hours then No. 14. (Pre-chill for 4 weeks).                                            

Labumum        HT        30-60              65-70  Well drained    1/16  Chip and  soak. See NOS. 12 and 13.                                                                 
Lagerstroemia  HHSh      15-20    L         70     Well drained    S      See No. 5.                                                                                          
Lagunaria      GT        30-180         X   68-70  Peaty           1/8"   See No. 13.      (Soak for 2 hours).                                                                
Lamium         HP        30-60              65-70  Well drained    JC                                                                                                         
Lampranthus    HHP       15-30    D         65-75  Well drained    JC                                                                                                         
Lantana        HHP       42-60          X   70-75  Peaty           1/8"   See No. 13.      (Soak 1 day in hand hot water).                                                    
Lapageria      HHP       30-90          X   70-75  Peaty           1/8"   See No. 13.      Soak for 3 days changing water 3/5 times per day                                   
Lapeirousia    HBb       30-90          X   55-60  Well drained    1/8"                                                                                                       
Larix          HT        30-90    L     X   65-75  Peaty           S      See No. 14. pre-chill for 1 Months.                                                                 
Larkspur       HA        14-21    D         50-55  Peaty           1/16"  See No. 14.                                                                                         
Lasthenia      HA        17-21              -      Well drained    1/8"   Best sown in situ  Thin to 4".                                                                      
Lathyrus       HP        20-30          X   55-65  Peaty           1/4"'  Soak or chip the seeds. See Nos. 12 or 13.                                                          
Latris         HP        20-25              55-75  Well drained    JC     Reduce soil temperature at night.                                                                   
Launus         HT        40-90    L     X   50-60  Peaty           JC     Soak for 24 hours then No. 14. (Pre-chill 1 month)                                                  
Lavatera       HA, HB, HP15-20              70     Peaty           1/16"                                                                                                      
Lavender       HSh       21-90          X   55-65  Well drained    JC     See No. 14. (Pre-chill for 4-6 weeks).                                                              
Lawrencellida  HHA       21-30    L         65-75  Well drained    S                                                                                                          
Layia          HA        8-30               70-75  Well drained    1/8"                                                                                                       
Ledum          HSh       30-60    L     X   55-65  Acid peat       S                                                                                                          
Leea           GP        30-90          X   75-80  Well drained    1/8"   See No. 13.                                                                                         
Leontopodium   HP        10-42    L     X   50     Well drained    S      See No. 14. (Pre-chill for 3 weeks).                                                                
Leptosiphon    HA        17-21              55-65  Well drained    1/16"  Best sown in situ.                                                                                  
Leptospermum   HHSh      30-180         X   60     Peaty           1/16"                                                                                                      
Leptosyne      HA        6-12     L         60-65  Peaty           1/8"                                                                                                       
Leschenaultia  GSh       30-120         X   60-70  Well drained    JC                                                                                                         
Lewisia        HP        365+     L     X   50     Well drained    S      See No. 14. (Pre-chill for 5 weeks).                                                                
Leycesteria    HSh       30-60              60-65  Sandy peat      JC                                                                                                         
Libertia       HP        30-180         X   50     Well drained    1/8"   See No. 6.                                                                                          
Ligularia      HP        14-42          X   55-65  Peaty           S      Keep compost slighty moist.                                                                         
Lilies         HBb       30-365         X   65-75  Peaty           JC     See No. 10 for more details.                                                                        
Limnanthes     HA        14-21              60     Well drained    1/16"  Can be sown in situ                                                                                 
Limonium       HP, HHA   10-20    D         65-70  Well drained    JC     Suworowii needs total darkness to germinate                                                         
Linanthus      HA        17-21              -      Well drained    1/8"   Saw outdoors and thin out.                                                                          
Linaria        HP        10-15              55-60  Well drained    JC     See No. 14. (Pre-chill for 3 weeks).                                                                
Linurn         HP        20-25              65     Well drained    1/8"   Best sown in situ.                                                                                  
Liquidambar    HT        14-365   L     X   65-75  Peaty           S      See No.  14. (Pre-chill for 3 months). Don't let the seeds dry out.                                 
Liriodendron   HT        60-365   L     X   65-75  Peaty           S      See No.  16.                                                                                        
Lisianthus     HHP       10-21    L         68-77  Well drained    S                                                                                                          
Lithops        GP        10-40    L     X   75-80  Well drained    S                                                                                                          
Lobelia        HHA,HHP   15-20    L     X   65-75  Well drained    S      Place seed of a in fridge for 3 months (See No. 14).                                                
Loiseleuria    HSh       30-60              65-75  Well drained    JC                                                                                                         
Lomatia        HHSh      30-180         X   60-65  Well drained    1/8"                                                                                                       
Lonas          HA        5-7      D         70     Well drained    JC     Can be sown in sity                                                                                 
Lonicera       HSh       180+     L     X   60-70  Well drained    JC     See No.  14. Place in frig. for 3 months. Keep temp. below 75'F.                                    
Lotus          HHP       14-30          X   55-65  Well drained    JC     Transplant into 3" pots.                                                                            
Luculia        HHSH      30-60          X   55-60  Well drained    JC                                                                                                         
Lunaria        HB        10-14              70     Well drained    1/8"   Can be sown in situ                                                                                 
Lupin          HP        15-60    D     X   55-65  Well drained    1/8"   Soak or chip the seeds. See Nos. 12 or 13.                                                          
Lychnis        HP        21-30    L         70     Well drained    S      See No. 2. (pre-chill for 2 weeks).                                                                 
Lysichitum     HP        30-60          X   55-65  Peaty           1/4"   Keep compost saturated by standing in water.                                                        
Lysimachia     HP        30-90          X   55-65  Peaty           S      Keep compost moist.                                                                                 
Lythrum        HP        15-30              65-70  Peaty           JC                                                                                                         

Macropidia     GP        30-90    L         60-65  Peaty           S      See No. 5.                                                                                          
Magnolia       HT        120+     L     X   50     Well drained    JC     See No.  14. Place in frig. for 4 months.                                                           
Mahonia        HSh       90-120   L     X   50     Peaty           JC     See No.  14. (Pre-chill for 3 weeks).                                                               
Makus          HT        120-365  L     X   50     Peaty           JC     Soak for 24 hours then No. 14. (Pre-chill for 14 weeks).                                            
Malope         HA        14-30              65-75  Peaty           JC     See No. 14. (Pre-chill for 3 weeks).                                                                
Malva          HP        5-21               70     Peaty           1/16"                                                                                                      
Mandeville     HHSh      14-30              65-75  Well drained    JC     Sow in 1/2 sand and 1/2 peat.                                                                       
Mandragora     HP        50-60              55-60  Peaty           1/8"                                                                                                       
Marigold       HHA       5-14               70-75  Peaty           JC                                                                                                         
Matricaria     HP        5-21     L         65-75  Well drained    S      Reduce soil temperature at night.                                                                   
Maurandia      HHP       14-21              65-70  Well drained    1/16"                                                                                                      
Meconopsis     HP        14-28          X   55-65  Peaty           S      Keep slightly moist. See also No. 5.                                                                
Melia          GT        30-180         X   55     Wall drained    1/8"                                                                                                       
Melianthus     HHSh      30-180         X   70-75  Peaty           1/16"                                                                                                      
Mentzelia      HA        5-21               55-60  Well drained    JC                                                                                                         
Menziesia      HSh       30-60              55     Sandy peat      S      Keep compost uniformly moist.                                                                       
Merrtensia     HP        30-60          X   55-60  Well drained    1/16"  See No. 14. (Pre-chill for 3 weeks).                                                                
MesembryanthernHHA       15-20    D         65-75  Well drained    S                                                                                                          
Metrosideros   HHSh      30-90          X   60-60  Peaty           1/16"                                                                                                      
Mimosa         GP        21-30    L     X   70-75  Well drained    S      See No. 13. (Soak for 20 minutes in almost boiling water).                                          
Mimulus        HHP, HP   7-21     L         70-75  Peaty           S      See No. 14. (Pre-Chill for3 weeks). Then No. 5.                                                     
Mina           HHP       20-25              70     Well drained    1/4"   Chip and soak. See Nos. 12 and 13.                                                                  
Mirabilis      HHA       7-21     L         70     Well drained    S                                                                                                          
Moluccelia               21-35    L     X   60     Well drained    JC     Pre-chill for 5 days then 40'F temp. night gives best results.                                      
Momordica      HHA       14-21              65-75  Peaty           1/8"   Sow seeds singly in 3' pots.                                                                        
Monarda        HP        10-40              60-70  Peaty           JC     Reduce soil temperature at night.                                                                   
Moraea         HHBB      30-90          X   55-60  Well drained    1/8"                                                                                                       
Morina         HP        14-42              50     Peaty           1/16"                                                                                                      
Morus          HT        14-30    L         65-75  Peaty           S      See No. 5. or see No. 14. (Pre-chill for 1-3 months).                                               
Mucuna         GP        21-90              65-75  Peaty           1/4"                                                                                                       
Muscari        HBb       42-60              60-65  Well drained    1/16"                                                                                                      
Mutisia        H/HHsh    30-90          X   70     Well drained    1/16"                                                                                                      
Myosotidium    H/HHP     30-180         X   65-70  Peaty           1/16"                                                                                                      
Myosotis       HB        14-30    D         65-70  Peaty           S      See No. 5 but keep in total darkness.                                                               
Myrrhis        HP        14-42              55-65  Well drained    1/8"   Can be sown in sity                                                                                 
Myrtus         HHSH      30-90          X   55-65  Peaty           JC     See No.  13.                                                                                        

Naranjilla     GP        10-30          X   70-80  Peaty           1/16"                                                                                                      
Nasturtium     HA        7-12               65     Well drained    1/4"   Best sown in situ                                                                                   
Nemesia        HHA       7-21               55-70  Peaty           S      See No. 5.                                                                                          
Nemophila      HA        7-21               55     Well drained    1/16"  Can be sown in situ.                                                                                
Neperrthes     GP        30-90          X   75-85  Peaty           S      Dont let compost dry out. See also No.5.                                                           
Nepeta         HP        7-21               60-70  Well drained    JC     Can be sown in situ.                                                                                
Nerine         HHBB      14-21              65-70  Well drained    S      Sow immediately, deep moist and place in a polythene bag.                                           
Nerium         GSh       30-90    L     X   65-75  Peaty           S                                                                                                          
Nertera        GP        30-90    D     X   65-70  Well drained    SC     See No. 8.                                                                                          
Nicandra       HA        15-20              70-75  Well drained    JC                                                                                                         
Nicotana       HHA       10-20    L         70-75  Well drained    S                                                                                                          
Nierembergia   HHP       15-30          X   70-75  Well drained    JC                                                                                                         
Nigella        HA        10-15              65-70  Well drained    1/16"  Best sown in situ. Resents transplanting.                                                           
Nolana         HHA       14-30              60-70  Well drained    1/16"  Can be sown in situ.                                                                                
Nomocharis     HBb       30-180   L     X   45-50  Well drained    JC     See No. 16                                                                                          
Notholirion    HI/HHBB   30-180   L     X   45-50  Well drained    JC     See No .16                                                                                          
Nyssa          HT        90-365   L     X   50     Peaty           S      See No.  14. (Pre-chill for 3 months).                                                              

Ocimum         HA        14-42    L         55-60  Well drained    S                                                                                                          
Oenothera      HP        15-30    L         65-70  Well drained    JC                                                                                                         
Olea           HHT/HT    30-120         X   65-70  Well drained    1/8"                                                                                                       
Olearia        H/HHSh    30-60    L         65-70  Well drained    S                                                                                                          
Omithogalum    GBb       30-180         X   55-60  Peaty           1/16"  See No. 6                                                                                           
Omphalodes     HP        14-42              65-75  Well drained    1/8"                                                                                                       
Onopordon      HP, HB    30-60              55-60  Well drained    1/4"   Can be sown in situ.                                                                                
Onosma         HP        30-60              50     Well drained    1/16"                                                                                                      
Orchid         GP        90-365   L     X   65-75  Well drained    S                                                                                                          
Orchis         HBb       90-365   L     X   65-75  Well drained    S                                                                                                          
Orphium        GSh       21-42    L         65-70  Well drained    S                                                                                                          
Osteospermum   HHA, HP   10-15    L         60-65  Well drained    JC                                                                                                         
Ostrya         HT        365+     L     X   50-60  Well drained    JC     See No.  16.                                                                                        
Oxalis         HBb       14-60              55-68  Well drained    JC                                                                                                         

Pachypodium    GP        30-180   L     X   65-75  Well drained    S                                                                                                          
Paeonia        HSh       270+     L     X   70     Well drained    JC     See No.  15.                                                                                        
Paeonia        HP        365+     L     X   50-60  Well drained    JC     See No. 16. Keep shaded and moist.                                                                  
Palms          GP        60-180         X   75-80  Peaty           1/4"   See No. 2                                                                                           
Pansy          HP        14-21    D     X   65-75  Well drained    1/16"  See No. 14. (Pre-Chill for 2 Weeks.)                                                                
Papaver        HP        10-30    D         55     Well drained    S      Best sown in situ.  P. Orientale Needs light for germination.                                       
Paradisea      HP        30-180         X   50     Well drained    1/16"  See No. 6                                                                                           
Parnassia      HP        30-180         X   55-65  Peaty           S      Stand seed pan in a saucer of water to keep soil always moist.                                      
Parochetus     HP        30-90          X   50     Well drained    1/16"  See No. 13.                                                                                         
Parthenocissus HSh       60-180   L     X   60-70  Well drained    JC     See No. 13 then 14. (Pre-chill for 6 week).                                                         
Passiflora     HHP       30-365         X   70-85  Peaty           1/4"   See No. 13. Give the seed container an occasional soaking.                                          
Paulownia      HT        30-60    L         55-70  Peaty           S      No. 5                                                                                               
Pavonia        GSh       30-60          X   75     Peaty           1/16"                                                                                                      
Peanuts        GA        34170              70-75  Peaty           1/4"   Sow and place inside a polythene bag until germination.                                             
Peltiphyllum   H P       30-90    L     X   55-60  Peaty           S      Stand seed pan in a saucer of water to keep soil always moist.                                      
Penstemon      HP        18-21    L         55-60  Well drained    JC     See No.14                                                                                           
Pentas         GP        25-40              70-75  Peaty           S      See No.5                                                                                            
Peperomia      GP        15-30              70-75  Peaty           S      See No.5                                                                                            
Perilla        HHA       15-30    L         65-75  Peaty           S                                                                                                          
Petrea         GSh       30-60    L         65-75  Peaty           S                                                                                                          
Petunia        HHA       10-21    L         70-75  Peaty           S      F1 hybrids and doubles may need 80F to germinate.                                                   
Phacelia       HA        12-30    D         55-65  Well drained    1/4"   Best sown in situ.  Total dark required.                                                            
Phaeomeria     GP        30-90          X   80     Well drained    1/8"                                                                                                       
Phaseolus      GP        30-60              65-70  Well drained    1/16"  Chip and soak. See Nos. 12 an 13.                                                                   
Philadelphus   HSh       30-60              65-70  Well drained    JC                                                                                                         
Philodendron   GP        30-120         X   75-80  Peaty           1/16"                                                                                                      
Phlomis        HSh       30-90          X   65-75  Well drained    JC                                                                                                         
Phlomis        HP        14-42              60     Well drained    JC                                                                                                         
Phlox-Annual   HHA       10-21    D         55-65  Peaty           1/16"  Sow direct into pots as it resents transplanting.                                                   
Phlox-PerennialHP        25-30    D     X   70     Peaty           1/16"  See No.14. (Pre-chill for 4 weeks).                                                                 
Phormium       HP        30-180         X   60-65  Peaty           JC                                                                                                         
Phuopsis       HP        30-40    L         50-60  Well drained    S                                                                                                          
Phygelius      HP        10-14              70-75  Well drained    JC                                                                                                         
Phyllodoce     HSh       30-60    L         55-65  Peaty           S                                                                                                          
Physalis       HP        21-30    L         70     Well drained    S                                                                                                          
Physostegia    HP        21-30              55-75  Peaty           JC     Reduce soil temperature at night.                                                                   
Phyteuma       HP        30-90          X   55-65  Well drained    JC     See No.6                                                                                            
Phytolacca     HP        30-60          X   65-70  Well drained    1/8"                                                                                                       
Picea          HT        30-60    L     X   55     Well drained    S      See No. 14. (Pre-chill for 21 days).                                                                
Pieris         HSh       30-70    L     X   65-70  Acid Peat       S      See No. 5.                                                                                          
Pilea          GP        14-60    L     X   65-75  Peaty           S      See No. 5.                                                                                          
Pinguicula     HHP       30-120   L     X   55     Peaty           S      See No. 5. Use a compost = peat and = sand.                                                         
Pinus          HT        30-60    L     X   55-65  Well drained    S      Soak seed, then No14. (Pre-chill for 6 weeks).                                                      
Pittosporum    HHSh      30-60          X   55     Well drained    1/16"  Place seeds in a bag and dip in boiling water for a few seconds.                                    
Pittosporum    HHSh      30-60              55     Well drained    1/16"  Place seeds in a bag and dip in boiling water for few seconds.                                      
Platycodon     HP        15-30    L         70     Wall drained    S                                                                                                          
Platystemon    HA        14-30              55-65  Wall drained    1/16"  Sow in situ                                                                                         
Plumbago       GP        25-30              70     Well drained    JC                                                                                                         
Plumneria      GP        30-180         X   65-75  Peaty           1/16"  See No. 13.                                                                                         
Podolepis      HHA       21-30    L         65-70  Wall drained    S                                                                                                          
Podophyllum    HP        30-180   L     X   55-60  Peaty           JC     Pre-chill for 3 weeks. Keep compost always moist.                                                   
Polemonium     HP        20-25              70     Peaty           1/16"  Reduce soil temperature at night.                                                                   
Polygala       HSh       30-60    L         60-65  Well drained    JC                                                                                                         
Polygonatum    HP        30-545         X   50     Wei drained     1/16"  See No. 6.                                                                                          
Polygonum      HP, HHA   21-60          X   70-75  Peaty           1/16"  Do not overwater                                                                                    
Portulaca      HHA       14-21    L         70-85  Well drained    S                                                                                                          
Potentilla     HP        14-30              65-70  Well drained    JC                                                                                                         
Poterium       HP        30-60          X   50     Wall drained    JC     See No. 6.                                                                                          
Primula-indoorsGA, GP    20-25    L     X   55-60  Peaty           S      P.Sinensis needs darkness for germination.                                                          
Primula-OutdoorHP        21-40    L     X   60-65  Peaty           S      See No. 14. (Pre-chill for 3 weeks).                                                                
Proboscidia    GA/HHA    15-42          X   70-75  Peaty           1/4"                                                                                                       
Protea         HHT       30-90          X   65-75  Peaty           1/4"   Sow immediately.                                                                                    
Prunella       HP        30-60              55-65  Well drained    1/16"                                                                                                      
Prunus         HT        120-365  L     X   65-75  Well drained    1/16"  Soak overnight then see No. 14. (Pre-chill for 4 months).                                           
Pseudotsuga    HT        30-180   L -   X   75     Peaty           S      See No. 14. (Pre-chifl for 8 weeks).                                                                
Psidium                  30-60          X   70-75  Peaty           JC     See No. 13.                                                                                         
Ptelia         HSh/HT    80-120             55-60  Well drained    1/8"   See No. 14. (Pre-chill for 3 weeks).                                                                
Pulmonaria     HP        30-42              60-65  Peaty           JC                                                                                                         
Pulsatilla     HP        30-180         X   60-70  Well drained    JC     See No. 6. Trim 'tails' off seeds before sowing                                                     
Punica         HHSH      30-40    L         70-75  Well drained    S      See No. 13                                                                                          
Pyracantha     HSh       40-180   L     X   50     Peaty           JC     See No. 14. (Pre-chill for 6 weeks).                                                                
Pyrethum       HHA, HP   30-60          X   55     Well drained    JC     Doubleness of flowers increases in 2nd year.                                                        
Pyrola         HSh       30-90    L     X   55     Peaty           S                                                                                                          

Quercus        HT        120-365  L     X   50     Peaty           JC     Soak for  24 hours, then No. 14. (Pre-chill for 3 months).                                          

Ramonda        HP        30-60    L     X   55-60  Well drained    S                                                                                                          
Ranunculus     HP        30-90          X   50     Well drained    1/16"  See No. 6.                                                                                          
Raoulia        HP        30-90    L     X   55-60  Well drained    S                                                                                                          
Ratibida       HA/HB/HP  21-42              68-75  Well drained    1/8"   Reduce soil temperature at night.                                                                   
Rechsteineria  GBb       30-60              70     Well drained    JC                                                                                                         
Rehmannia      H/HHP     21-42    L         60-65  Well drained    JC                                                                                                         
Reseda         HB, HA    5-21     L         70     Well drained    S      Extra care required when transplanting.                                                             
Rhaeo          GP        14-60              65-70  Peaty           JC     See No. 13. (Soak for 1/2 hour).                                                                    
Rheum          HP        21-42              60-65  Peaty           1/8"                                                                                                       
Rhodanthe      HHA       14-30              75-80  Well drained    JC     Can be sown in situ                                                                                 
Rhodatypos     HSh       365+     L     X   55-65  Peaty           JC     See No. 15. (3 months at 70F, 3 months chill, 3 months at 70'F).                                    
Rhodochiton    HHP       12-42          X   60-65  Peaty           JC                                                                                                         
Rhododendron   HSh       50-90    L     X   55-60  Acid Peat       S      See No.  6. Keep shaded from direct sun.                                                            
Rhodohypoxis   HP        30-90          X   50     Well drained    JC     Lime free compost required.                                                                         
Rhus           HSh       30-90          X   65-70  Well drained    JC     Chip or soak. See Nos. 12 and 13.                                                                   
Ricinus        HHA       15-21              70-75  Peaty           1/4"   These seeds are poisonous.                                                                          
Robinia        HT        34179    L         65-75  Well drained    S      See  No. 13. Soak in hand hot water.                                                                
Rochea         HHP       14-42    L         60-70  PBM             S      See No. 5.                                                                                          
Rodgersia      HP        12-60    L         55-60  Peaty           S                                                                                                          
Rosa           HSh       30-365+  L     X   55     Well drained    JC     See  No. 16 or No..14. (Pre-chill for 3 months).                                                    
Roscoea        HP        30-365   L     X   50-55  Well drained    S      See No. 16.                                                                                         
Rothmannia     HHSh      30-90          X   70-75  Peaty           1/8"   See No. 13. (Soak for 5 hours).                                                                     
Rudbeckia      HHA, HP   34109    L         70     Peaty           S      Fulgida see No. 14. (Pre-chill for 2 weeks).                                                        
Ruella         HP        30-60          X   65-75  Peaty           JC                                                                                                         
Ruta           HP        30-42              60-65  Well drained    JC                                                                                                         

Sagina         HP        10-21              55     Well drained    JC                                                                                                         
Saintpaulia    GP        30-60    L     X   70-75  Peaty           S      See No. 5.                                                                                          
Salpiglossis   HHA       15-30    D     X   70-75  Peaty           S                                                                                                          
Salvia         HHA, HA   10-14    L     X   68-80  Well drained    S      For Patens & Superba see No. 14. (Pre-chill for 3 weeks).                                           
Sandersonia    HHBB      30-90          X   75     Well drained    1/8"   See No. 13.                                                                                         
Sanguinaria    HP        30-90          X   50-55  Well drained    1/16"                                                                                                      
Sanguisorba    HP        30-60              50-55  Well drained    S                                                                                                          
Santolina      HSh       15-30              -70    Well drained    JC                                                                                                         
Sanvitalia     HA        10-21    L         70     Well drained    S      Take care when transplanting.                                                                       
Saponaria      HA, HP    10-21    L         70     Well drained    S      See No. 14. (Pre-chill for 3 weeks).                                                                
Sarcococca     HSh       30-120             55-65  Peaty           JC                                                                                                         
Sarracenia     HP        30-90    L     X   75-80  Peaty           S      See No. 14. (Pre-chill for 7 days) then No. 5.                                                      
Saxifraga      HP        15-60          X   65-75  Well drained    JC     See No. 6.                                                                                          
Scabiosa       HA        10-15          X   70-75  Well drained    1/16"                                                                                                      
Schefflera     GSh       20-30              75     Peaty           1/16"                                                                                                      
Schizanthus    GA        7-14               60-75  Peaty           S                                                                                                          
Schizopetalon  HHA       6-21     D         60-65  Well drained    1/16"                                                                                                      
Schizostylis   HBb       30-90          X   55-60  Well drained    1/16"                                                                                                      
Scilla         HP        30-180         X   50     Peaty           1/16"  See No. 6.                                                                                          
Scutellaria    HP        14-180         X   50     Well drained    JC                                                                                                         
Sedum          HP        15-30          X   50     Well drained    S      See No. 6.                                                                                          
Sempervwm      HP        15-30          X   70     Wei drained     S                                                                                                          
Senecio        HHA       10-21    L         65-75  Well drained    1/16"                                                                                                      
Sequoia        HT        7-60     L     X   9/6/96 Peaty           S                                                                                                          
Setcreasia     HHP       30-40              70     Peaty           JC                                                                                                         
Shortia        HP        30-60          X   60-65  Peaty           S      See No. 14. (Pre-chill for 3 weeks).                                                                
Sidalcea       HP        14-42              50     Well drained    1/8"                                                                                                       
Silene         HP        15-20              70     Well drained    JC     Can   be sown in situ..                                                                             
Silybum        HA        14-21              55-60  Well drained    1/8"   Can   be sown in situ.                                                                              
Simmondsia     HHT       14-21              65-70  Well drained    JC     See   No. 13. (Soak for 12 hours).                                                                  
Sinningia      GP        10-21    L         70     Peaty           S                                                                                                          
Sisyrnchium    HP        30-180         X   50     Well drained    1/8"   See No. 6.                                                                                          
Skimmia        HSh       30-180   L     X   50-60  Acid Peat       S      Soak overnight then No. 14. (Pre-chill for 4 weeks).                                                
Smilacena      HP        30-180   L     X   60-65  Peaty           JC     See No. 14. (Pre-chill for 3 weeks).                                                                
Smithiantha    GP        15-40    L         75-77  Peaty           S      Very small seeds                                                                                    
Solanum        GP        15-21    L         70-80  Well drained    S      The plants should be placed outdoors through the summer for pollination.                            
Soldanella     HP        30-180   L     X   55-60  Well drained    JC     See No. 14. (Pre-chill for 4 weeks).                                                                
Solidago       HP        14-42              50     Well drained    JC                                                                                                         
Sophora        HT        10-21              70-85  Well drained    JC     Chip and soak seeds. See Nos. 12 and 13.                                                            
Sorbus         HT        120-180  L     X   65-70  Well drained    S      See    No.      14. (Pre-chill for 4 months).                                                       
Sparaxis       HBb       30-90          X   50-55  Well drained    1/16"                                                                                                      
Sparmannia     GSh       21-30              65-75  Peaty           JC                                                                                                         
Spartium       HSh       7-30               70     Well drained    JC     CHip and soak. See Nos. 12 and 13.                                                                  
Specularia     HA        12-30              -      Well drained    1/16"  Sow outdoors and thin out.                                                                          
Spigelia       H/HHP     30-60    L         65-70  Well drained    JC     See No. 14. (Pre-chill for 3 weeks).                                                                
Spiraea        HSh       30-40              55-65  Well drained    JC                                                                                                         
Stachys        HP        15-30    L         70     Well drained    JC     Reduce soil temperature at night. Grow on the dry side.                                             
Stapelia       GP        7-30     L     X   65-70  Peaty           S      Use 1/2 peat 1/2 sand.                                                                              
Stenocarpus    HHT       30-90          X   65-75  Well drained    JC                                                                                                         
Stephanotis    GP        15-90          X   75-80  Peaty           1/16"  Keep the compost slightly moist.                                                                    
Stereospermum  GSh       30-18O         X   65-75  Well drained    JC                                                                                                         
Stocks         HHA       10-14    L         55-60  Well drained    S      Sow in situ..                                                                                       
Stokesia       HP        25-30              70     Peaty           1/16"                                                                                                      
Strelitzia     GP        30-180         X   70-75  Sand            S      See No. 1. Soak for up to 3 days changing the water daily.                                          
Streptocarpus  GP        15-30    L         55-65  Peaty           S      Very small seeds. See No. 5.                                                                        
Streptosolon   HHSh      30-90          X   55-65  Well drained    1/16"                                                                                                      
Stylomecon     HA        14-21              -      Well drained    1/16"  Sow outdoors and thin out to 6".                                                                    
Styrax         HSh       30-90          X   55-65  Well drained    JC                                                                                                         
Succisa        HP        10-21          X   65-70  Well drained    JC                                                                                                         
Sutherlandia   H/HHSh    21-30              60-65  Well drained    1/16"  See No. 13. (Soak for 3 hours).                                                                     
Sweet Pea      HA        10-20    D         55-65  Peaty           Y4,    Flie or soak seeds. See Nos. 12 and 13. Grow cool.                                                  
Symphyandra    HP        21-30    L         60-65  Well drained    JC                                                                                                         
Syringa        HSh       14-60    L         70     Peaty           S      See No. 14. (Pre-chill for 3 weeks).                                                                

Tacca          GP        30-270         X   80-85  Peati           1/8"   Soak for 72 hours. See No: 13.                                                                      
Tacitus        HHP       30-90    L     X   50-60  Well drained    S                                                                                                          
Tamarix        @Sh       30-50    L         65-70  Peaty           S      See No.  5.                                                                                         
Taxodium       HT        14-60    L         70     Peaty           S      See No.  14. (Pre-chill for 30 days).                                                               
Taxus          HT        365+     L     X   70     Peaty           JC     See No. 15. (3 months at 70'F, 3 months chill, 3 months at 70'9.                                    
Tecophilaea    HBb       30-365         X   50-55  Peaty           1/16"  Keep compost slightly moist.                                                                        
Tellima        HP        30-90          X   55-60  Well drained    S      See No. 6.                                                                                          
Tephrosia      HP        21-42              65-70  Well drained    JC     Chip and soak. See Nos. 12 and 13.                                                                  
Tetranema      GP        14-30              65-75  Peaty           JC                                                                                                         
Teucrium       HP        25-30              70     Well drained    S                                                                                                          
Thalictrum     HP        15-21          X   50-60  Well drained    1/8"                                                                                                       
Thermopsis     HP        15-30              70     Well drained    1/16"  File or soak the seeds. See Nos. 12 and 13.                                                         
Thuja          HSh       14-60    L     X   55     Peaty           S      See No.  14. (Pre-chill for 4 weeks).                                                               
Thunbergia     HHA       14-21          X   70-75  Peaty           JC     Keep the compost slightly moist.                                                                    
Thymus         HP        15-30    L         55     Peaty           S      See No. 5.                                                                                          
Tiarelia       HP        14-90          X   50     Well drained    S      See   No. 6.                                                                                        
Tibouchina     GSh       30-90    L     X   60-70  Peaty           S      See   No. 5.                                                                                        
Tigridia       H/HHBb    30-90              55-60  Well drained    1/16"                                                                                                      
Tillandsia     GP        30-90    L     X   60-70  Peaty           S      See   No. 5.                                                                                        
Tithonia       HHA       5-14     L     X   70-    Well drained    S                                                                                                          
Torenia        GA        15-30    L         70-75  eaty            S      See   No. 5.                                                                                        
Townsendia     HP        30-90          X   60     Well drained    1/16"  See  No. 6.                                                                                         
Trachelium     HHP       15-21    L         55-60  Well drained    S                                                                                                          
Trachycarpus   HT        40-90    L     X   55-65  Peaty           S      See No.  14. (Pre-chill for 4 weeks).                                                               
Trachymene     HHA       15-30    D         70     Well drained    1/16"  Trasplant carefully.                                                                                
Tradescantia   HP        30-40              70     Peaty           JC     Reduce soil temperature at night.                                                                   
Tree Fems      HHP       30-120   L     X   65-70  Peaty           S      See No. 4.                                                                                          
Trichosanthes  HHA       14-30              65-75  Peaty           1"     Sow singly in 2' pots.                                                                              
Tricyrtis      HP        30-90          X   65-70  Well drained    1/8"   Keep compost slighty moist.                                                                         
Trillium       HP        545+           X   60-70  Well drained    S      See  No. 15. Requires two periods of at least 3 months in the frig.                                 
Tripteris      HA        5-14               60-65  Well drained    1/8"   Can be sown in situ.                                                                                
Trollius       HP        30-365         X   50     Well drained    S      See  No. 14. (Pre-chill for 2 weeks).                                                               
Trop. SpeciosumHP        360-720        X   55-60  Well drained    JC                                                                                                         
Tropaeolum     HA        10-15              55-65  Peaty           1/4"   Can be sown in situ                                                                                 
Tsuga          HT        7-60     L     X   60     Peaty           S      See No.  14. (Pre-chill for 3 months).                                                              
Tulipa         HBb       60-90          X   50     Well drained    1/8"   See No. 6.                                                                                          
Tunica         HP        14-60          X   50     Well drained    1/1 ,  See No. 6                                                                                           
Tweedia        GP        30-90          X   75     Well drained    JC                                                                                                         

Ulex           HSh       14-21              65-75  Well drained    JC     See No.  13.                                                                                        
Urospermum     HP/HB     16-30    L         60-65  Well drained    JC                                                                                                         
Ursinia        HHA       14-30              55-60  Well drained    JC                                                                                                         
Uvularia       HP        30-180         X   55-60  Peaty           JC                                                                                                         

Vaccinium      HSh       365+     L     X   65-75  Acid Peat       S      See No.  16.                                                                                        
Vallota        HHBB      30-60              65-70  Peaty           1/16"                                                                                                      
Veltheimia     HHBB      30-90          X   55-65  Peaty           1/16"  Keep compost slightly moist                                                                         
Venidium       HHA       6-14               60-65  Peaty           1/8"                                                                                                       
Veratrum       HP        90-365         X   55-60  Well drained    <"     See No. 6 and No. 16.                                                                               
Verbascum      HB, HP    14-30              55-60  Well drained    1/16"  Can be grown in situ                                                                                
Verbena        HHA, HP   14-90    D     X   65     Well drained    1/16"  Bonariensis & Venosa. See No. 14. (Pre-chill for 2 weeks).                                          
Verbesina      HHA       14-30              60-65  Well drained    1/8"                                                                                                       
Veronica       HP        15-30    L         70     Peaty           JC     Reduce soil temperature at night.                                                                   
Veronicastrum  HP        21-40    L         55-60  Well drained    JC                                                                                                         
Viburhum       HSh       240-540  L     X   70     Well drained    JC     See No.  15. (3 mortths 70F, 3 months chill, 3 months 70F).                                         
Vicia          HP        21-40              65-70  Well drained    JC                                                                                                         
Vinca          GA        15-30    D     X   70-75  Peaty           1/16"                                                                                                      
Viola          HP        14-21    D     X   65-75  Well drained    1/16"  See No. 14. (Pre-chill for 2 weeks).                                                                
Viscaria       HA        10-21              60-65  Well drained    JC                                                                                                         
Vriesia        GP        7-90     L     X   60.7   Peaty           S      See No. 5.                                                                                          

Wahlenbergia   HHA       14-28    L         60-70  Well drained    S                                                                                                          
Wallflower     HB        10-14              -70    Well drained    1/4"   Sow in reserve bed, prick out 6' apart, plant out in October.                                       
Waterlily      GP        14-30                                            File seed and submerge in water at 75-85'F, change water twice daily.                               
Watsonia       HBb       30-180         X   55-65  Well drained    1/8"   Keep the compost slimy moist.                                                                       
Wistaria       HSh       30-60              55-65  Well drained    1/8"   Chip and  soak in hand hot water. See Nos. 12 and 13.                                               
Xeranthemum    HA        10-15              70     Well drained    JC     Transplant carefully.                                                                               
Xeraphyllum    HP        30-60          X   55-60  Peaty           JC                                                                                                         
Yucca          HA        30-365         X   65-75  Well drained    JC     Filamentosa germinates at 55'F.                                                                     
Zantedeschia   HHP       30-90    L     X   70-80  Peaty           S      See No. 13. Keep compost quite moist.                                                               
Zauschneria    H/HHP     30-60    L         60-65  Well drained    JC                                                                                                         
Zea            HHA       5-14               70     Peaty           1/4"   Sow seeds individually in peat pots.                                                                
Zelkova        HT        14-60    L     X   50-70  Peaty           S      See No.  5 or No. 14. (Pre-chill for 2 weeks).                                                      
Zinnia         HHA       10-24              75-80  Peaty           1/16"  Sow seeds individually in peat pots.                                                                

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