This short lived plant is commonly used to create spots of color during fall, winter and spring. Hundreds of new varieties are now on the market, some better suited to colder winters than others. Five petals; two large upright petals, and three slightly smaller lower petals, often marked, giving the appearance of a “face.” Flowers from 1 to 4 inches across. Different selections are available with a variety of markings and colorings. Because they are short lived, soil conditions are not crucial. However, best results are achieved when planted in well drained, rich soil. Moderate water and full sun are best for flowering. Throw your “Don’t Pick the Flowers” sign away. The more you pick these little fellows, the more you will have! A must for those with grandchildren.
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Size:Height: 0.5 ft. to 0.75 ft.
Width: 0.75 ft. to 1 ft.
Plant Category:annuals and biennials, edibles,
Plant Characteristics:seed start,
Foliage Characteristics:evergreen, semi-evergreen,
Flower Characteristics:old fashioned/heritage,
Flower Color:blacks, blues, burgundy, creams, oranges, pinks, purples, reds, whites, yellows,
Bloomtime Range: Early Spring to Early Winter
USDA Hardiness Zone:4 to 8
AHS Heat Zone:Not defined for this plant
Light Range:Dappled to Full Sun
pH Range:5.5 to 7.5
Soil Range:Sandy Loam to Clay Loam
Water Range:Normal to Moist
FertilizingHow-to : Fertilization for Annuals and Perennials
Annuals and perennials may be fertilized using: 1.water-soluble, quick release fertilizers; 2. temperature controlled slow-release fertilizers; or 3. organic fertilizers such as fish emulsion. Water soluble fertilizers are generally used every two weeks during the growing season or per label instructions. Controlled, slow-release fertilizers are worked into the soil ususally only once during the growing season or per label directions. For organic fertilizers such as fish emulsion, follow label directions as they may vary per product.
LightConditions : Sun
Sun is defined as the continuous, direct, exposure to 6 hours (or more) of sunlight per day.
WateringConditions : Normal Watering for Outdoor Plants
Normal watering means that soil should be kept evenly moist and watered regularly, as conditions require. Most plants like 1 inch of water a week during the growing season, but take care not to over water. The first two years after a plant is installed, regular watering is important for establishment. The first year is critical. It is better to water once a week and water deeply, than to water frequently for a few minutes.
PlantingHow-to : Sow Seed
Now is the preferred time to sow seed.
ProblemsPest : Aphids
Aphids are small, soft-bodied, slow-moving insects that suck fluids from plants. Aphids come in many colors, ranging from green to brown to black, and they may have wings. They attack a wide range of plant species causing stunting, deformed leaves and buds. They can transmit harmful plant viruses with their piercing/sucking mouthparts. Aphids, generally, are merely a nuisance, since it takes many of them to cause serious plant damage. However aphids do produce a sweet substance called honeydew (coveted by ants) which can lead to an unattractive black surface growth called sooty mold.
Fungi : Rusts
Most rusts are host specific and overwinter on leaves, stems and spent flower debris. Rust often appears as small, bright orange, yellow, or brown pustules on the underside of leaves. If touched, it will leave a colored spot of spores on the finger. Caused by fungi and spread by splashing water or rain, rust is worse when weather is moist.
Fungi : Powdery Mildew
Powdery Mildew is usually found on plants that do not have enough air circulation or adequate light. Problems are worse where nights are cool and days are warm and humid. The powdery white or gray fungus is usually found on the upper surface of leaves or fruit. Leaves will often turn yellow or brown, curl up, and drop off. New foliage emerges crinkled and distorted. Fruit will be dwarfed and often drops early.
Prevention and Control: Plant resistant varieties and space plants properly so they receive adequate light and air circulation. Always water from below, keeping water off the foliage. This is paramount for roses. Go easy on the nitrogen fertilizer. Apply fungicides according to label directions before problem becomes severe and follow directions exactly, not missing any required treatments. Sanitation is a must - clean up and remove all leaves, flowers, or debris in the fall and destroy.
Fungi : Leaf Spots
Leaf spots are caused by fungi or bacteria. Brown or black spots and patches may be either ragged or circular, with a water soaked or yellow-edged appearance. Insects, rain, dirty garden tools, or even people can help its spread.
Diseases : Anthracnose
Anthracnose is the result of a plant infection, caused by a fungus, and may cause severe defoliation, especially in trees, but rarely results in death. Sunken patches on stems, fruit, leaves, or twigs, appear grayish brown, may appear watery, and have pinkish-tan spore masses that appear slime-like. On vegetables, spots may enlarge as fruit matures.
Prevention and Control: Try not to over water. If your climate is naturally rainy, grow resistant varieties. In the vegetable garden, stake and trellis plants to provide good air circulation so that plants may dry. Increase sunlight to plants by trimming limbs. Prune, remove, or destroy infected plants and remove all leaf debris. Select a fungicide that is labeled for anthracnose and the plant you are treating. Follow the label strictly.
Pest : Slugs and Snails
Begin looking for slugs and snails so that you may set traps.
Fungi : Downy Mildew
Downy Mildew, a fluffy white fungal growth that develops on the underside of leaves, is most common during cool, humid conditions. Foliage often discolors and is stunted.
Prevention and Control: Use disease free plants and space far enough apart so that air circulation is good. Remove and discard infected leaves or even entire plants. Use a recommended fungicide and always follow the directions on the label.