From the Greek chrysos, gold, anthemon, flower (Compositae). A genus of over 100 species of annuals, herbaceous perennials and sub-shrubs, distributed over Africa, America, Asia and Europe, including Britain. The well-known greenhouse and early-flowering (outdoor) chrysanthemums are descended from C. indicum, found in China and Japan, and C. morifolium (syn. C. sinense), from China, two closely related, variable plants.
Hardy perennials C. alpinum (syn. Leucanthemum alpinum) 3-6 inches, white flowers, summer, Pyrenees, Carpathians, scree in rock garden. C. argenteum (syns. Matricaria argentea, Pyrethrum argenteum, Tanacetum argenteum), 6 inches, sub-shrubby, grey-white stems and leaves, solitary white flowers, summer. C. cinerariifolium, 1-2 feet, white flowers, July and August. This is the species which produces pyrethrum insecticidal powder and is widely cultivated for this purpose in Japan and Kenya. C. coccineum (syn. Pyrethrum roseum), 2-3 feet, the pyrethrum of gardens, variable in colour; the origin of the garden pyrethrum (see Pyrethrum). C. haradjanii, 6 inches, silvery leaves, rock garden foliage plant. C. leucanthemum, oxeye daisy, 2-3 feet, white flowers, summer, Europe including Britain and North
America, a good cut flower. C. maximum, Shasta daisy, 11-3 feet, white flowers, summer, Pyrenees; vars. `Beaute Nivellois& , fringed petals; ‘Esther Read double, the most popular; ‘Horace Read’, creamy-white, double; ‘Ian
Murray’, anemone-centred; Jennifer Read’, later flowering; ‘Mount Everest’, large flowered; ‘Thomas Killin’, large anemone-centred; ‘Wirral Pride’, double, lemon-centred when first open; ‘Wirral Supreme’, large, double. Many others are to be found in catalogues and new varieties appear from time to time. C. nipponicum, 12-15 inches, white flowers, summer, Japan. C. parthenium, feverfew, 2 feet, pungent stems and leaves, white flowers, summer, Europe including Britain, best in its double form; var. aureum, golden feather, dwarf, yellow leaves, used in bedding. Flower-heads.
should be removed when they appear. C. praeteritum, 9 inches, sub-shrubby, grey, finely divided aromatic foliage; foliage plant. C. ptarmicaefolium, 1 foot, silvery white, much divided foliage, white flowers, summer. Canary Islands. C. rubellum, 2-3 feet, single flowers, in
shades of lilac and pink. September and October, of unknown origin; var. ‘Clara Curtis’. clear pink. C. sibiricum (syns. C. coreanum and Leucanthemum sibiricum), Korean chrysanthemum, 2-3 feet, variously coloured flowers, single and double, September and October, Korea. C. uliginosum, giant daisy, moon daisy, 5 feet, single white flowers, autumn, good for cutting, eastern Europe.
Cultivation The taller hardy perennials are useful border plants which will grow in any ordinary soil and sunny position.
They may be planted in spring or autumn and clumps should be lifted, divided and replanted every third year. The dwarf kinds are suitable for sunny rock gardens. All are propagated either by division in March or by seeds sown in the greenhouse at the same time.