Because of the complexity of their pedigrees, roses other than the species cannot be grown true to variety from seeds. They are mainly propagated by budding, although they can be rooted from cuttings. They are, however, not so vigorous as those that are budded. Growing from Cuttings Hardwood cuttings, about 1 ft. long and 1/4 in. in diameter, are taken in the fall by making a cut horizontally below a lower bud at the top with a cut sloping downwards from above a bud. The lower leaves are removed and the eyes eliminated with a wedge-shaped cut, when they are likely to be below the ground level
Place them 6 in. apart, in 2 in. of sand in a narrow wedge-shaped trench, which is filled with soil and gently trodden in, keeping them vertical. They should then be well watered. Rooting can be encouraged by wetting their lower ends and dipping them in hormone-rooting powder before planting.
In the fall of the following year the rooted cuttings can be transplanted to their permanent quarters.
Budding is the process of uniting the rose cell tissue to that of a related plant, which has well-developed roots. The latter is called a rootstock.
The budding knife is a razor-sharp, pointed knife, with a handle with a thin, wedge-shaped end for lifting the bark.
The seedling rootstocks are planted about 8 in. apart, preferably in a straight line in a spare plot in early spring. The neck, i.e. the part between the first green shoot and the root fork, should be about 1 in. above the ground. For convenience when budding, they should be put in sloping towards the spot where the budder will ultimately be working.
The shoot selected to provide buds should be one on which the blooms have just faded. As it should be fresh when the buds are taken, it should be left on the bush until the rootstock has been prepared.
In late summer, on a day following rain or copious overnight watering, the soil is scraped away from the neck of the rootstock and it is washed clean with water. Next the budder to assist him in his work, should press the rootstock down with his knee to give him good access to the neck.
About 1 in. above the root fork, a cross-cut, about 1/3 in. wide is made with the budding knife. Then from a point 3/4 in. below it, a lengthwise cut is made to form a T-shaped incision with it. At the finish of making this cut, the bark is carefully lifted slightly with a twisting movement of the blade. The bark along the whole length of the slit is raised, using the wedge-shaped end of the handle (see figure 13).
To take a bud the selected shoot is cut, the thorns removed and the leaves trimmed back.
The budding knife is inserted into the stem about 1/2 in. above a bud near its middle and the bark is cut thinly behind the bud until the blade is about that distance below it . The loosened bud is next gently torn away, taking a thin slip of bark with it.
Behind the bud there will be at this stage a thin layer of wood, which can be exposed by pulling away the strip of bark a little. This sliver of wood is removed, using the thumbnail, with a twisting movement (figure 16).
The bark containing the bud is next trimmed to form a wedge-shaped tongue on the side below it, so that the insertion into the incision on the rootstock is made easy (see figure 17).
Holding the small piece of leaf that has been left, the bud is next fitted into the T-cut
on the rootstock, with the wedge-shaped end downwards. The lifted bark of the rootstock is replaced and the portion of bark above the bud is trimmed off in line with the horizontal cut (see figure 18).
The bud is made secure, either by tying with two turns below and three turns above of raffia or plastic budding tape. If the remaining piece of leaf-stalk dies in about three weeks, it is a sign that the bud has taken. The fastenings eventually rot away (see steps 19, 20 and 21).
In the following spring, when the weather is dry and frost-free, the rootstock is cut away at a point about 1 in. above the bud.
Budding Standards Except that their buds are joined to the rootstock at the top of a vertical stem, the budding procedure is the same as with a bush except that the buds are inserted into side shoots when they have grown about 18 in. As the ties do not rot, they must be cut after four weeks. The newly-budded roses are ready for planting out in their permanent quarters in the following October, or thereafter in suitable weather conditions.
Budding a rose: A T-shaped incision is made in the bark and the bark is raised.
Cutting out the bud.
15: The bud is gently torn away, taking a thin slip of bark with it.
16: The sliver of wood remaining is removed with a twisting action of the thumbnail.
17: The strip of bark is trimmed off so that the end below the bud is wedge-shaped.
18: The bud is inserted in the T-shaped incision, with the bark trimmed level with the horizontal cut.
19: The bud is tied in with raffia or plastic tape.
20: The bud fastened with the patented Fleischauer Tie, which consists of a patch of rubber fastened with a metal staple. The remaining leaf stalk is carefully cut away without disturbing the bud.
21: The patented Fleischauer Tie